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IELTS Preparation Series 2, Episode 20: Zoos

September 3, 2016

 

(Bấm vào đây để xem/nghe bài kế tiếp)

 

Xem lời thoại bên dưới:

 

0:13

Hello. I'm Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation.

0:19

Today we visit a zoo, and we meet a man who designs natural looking habitats for zoo animals

0:25

to live in.

0:27

We'll also talk about infinitive verbs and we'll listen out for some common conversation

0:33

markers.

0:35

But let's start by meeting Richard Rowe, a horticulturalist at Werribee Zoo in Victoria.

0:42

Listen to Richard talk about his work at the zoo.

0:48

My role is to create environments that allow animals to display natural behaviour and for

0:54

visitors to see animals in areas which really do appear to be very natural. The skill of

1:00

what we do is to create something, which looks as though it's been here a long time and looks

1:04

very natural.

1:06

Well, we originally look at where is it that the animal lives. So narrow it down to geography.

1:12

Is it Africa, South America, wherever? Then look at the particular type of habitat. So

1:17

is it riverine? Is it savannah? And then narrow it down even closer again. Often, it's very,

1:24

very difficult to get vegetation from the specific area that an animal comes from.

1:32

With some plants, you know, they're already in the country so you can take cuttings or

1:36

collect seed. Botanic gardens are a great source for rare and unusual plants.

1:40

The simplest form of the verb is the infinitive form.

1:46

If you're using a dictionary to find the meaning of a verb, you'll need to know the infinitive

1:52

form. It's the most basic form that's used for dictionary entries.

1:59

Infinitives are generally used with the marker to. They can be used in many different ways.

2:06

Here's Richard describing his job.

2:09

My role is to create environments that allow animals to display natural behaviour and for

2:15

visitors to see animals in areas which really do appear to be very natural.

2:21

Richard says:

2:23

to create

2:25

to display

2:27

to see

2:29

to be

2:31

These infinitives all function in different ways.

2:35

Richard says:

2:37

My role is to create environments.

2:40

He also says:

2:42

The skill is to create something.

2:46

In both examples, the infinitive is a complement following the main verb.

2:52

Take a look at this sentence:

2:54

Before the IELTS test the important thing is to get plenty of rest.

3:01

Here the infinitive to get is a complement following the main verb is.

3:08

Let's look at another use of infinitives.

3:12

Richard says:

3:13

The areas appear to be very natural.

3:17

In English, there is a set of verbs that can be followed by infinitives.

3:23

Appear is one example.

3:26

Other examples are:

3:28

afford: I can't afford to go to university.

3:34

begin: I can't begin to explain how sorry I am.

3:40

expect: I expect to get my visa next week.

3:45

To use these correctly, you should learn the list of verbs taking the infinitive.

3:51

Now, let's look at the third way Richard uses infinitives.

3:56

He says:

3:57

Zoos allow animals to display natural behaviour.

4:02

and

4:02

They allow visitors to see animals.

4:07

In English there is a group of verbs that can be followed by an object and an infinitive.

4:12

Allow is one example.

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You could write:

4:18

Her parents wouldn't allow her to stay out late.

4:23

Some other examples are:

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ask: The professor asked him to explain the answer.

4:31

and encourage: Encourage the IELTS students to do more practice tests.

4:41

Here's a quick exercise for practising infinitives.

4:46

Here is a list of verbs. We have:

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join

4:49

look

4:50

submit

4:52

edit

4:53

lend, and

4:54

buy

4:57

I'm going to show you a sentence with one missing verb. You'll need to work out the

5:02

right verb and the right construction to fill in the space.

5:06

Let's start with an easy one.

5:10

I forgot ____ some bread.

5:14

Do you know which verb will fill the gap?

5:18

The completed sentence is:

5:20

I forgot to buy some bread.

5:25

Here's another one.

5:25

We're going out for dinner. Would you like _____ us?

5:32

We're going out for dinner. Would you like to join us?

5:39

How about this one:

5:41

The teacher reminded the students _______ their assignments on time.

5:49

The teacher reminded the students to submit their assignments on time.

6:00

In spoken English there are a number of words we use to help manage our speech. These words

6:06

make it easier to keep our speech fluent.

6:09

They are called conversation management markers, but we often just call them fillers.

6:17

Listen to Richard again. This time, he's talking about how he designs a habitat for a specific

6:23

animal in his zoo.

6:27

My role is to create environments that allow animals to display natural behaviour and for

6:34

visitors to see animals in areas which really do appear to be very natural. The skill of

6:39

what we do is to create something which looks as though it's been here a long time and looks

6:43

very natural.

6:45

Well, we originally look at where is it that the animal lives. So narrow it down to geography.

6:51

Is it Africa, South America, wherever? Then look at the particular type of habitat. So

6:56

is it riverine? Is it savannah? And then narrow it down even closer again. Often, it's very,

7:03

very difficult to get vegetation from the specific area that an animal comes from.

7:11

With some plants, you know, they're already in the country so you can take cuttings or

7:15

collect seed. Botanic gardens are a great source for rare and unusual plants.

7:21

Did you notice where Richard used the words well, so and you know?

7:26

It's important to understand how and why these words are used. Let's take a closer look at

7:34

each one.

7:36

We use the word well to indicate that we are considering or thinking about what someone

7:41

has said.

7:43

Richard uses well to begin his response to a question. He's about to take up the topic,

7:50

so he's thinking about what to say.

7:53

Well, we originally look at where is it that the animal lives.

7:58

Next, Richard uses the words you know. We use the phrase you know to create a sense

8:05

of intimacy by asking the listener to agree or show that they understand.

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Richard says you know because he wants the person asking questions to show that he or

8:17

she understands what Richard is saying.

8:20

Like this:

8:23

With some plants, you know, they're already in the country so you can, you can take cuttings

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or collect seed.

8:29

In that clip, Richard also used the word so.

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We use so to indicate that the things we are saying are connected.

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Richard uses so a number of times to connect the things he is saying, and to show that

8:46

they are all related to the questions he is answering.

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If you listen to native speakers' conversation, you'll hear these words often. You might also

8:56

hear words like ok or right. It takes practice, but in time you'll be able to sound more natural

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by making them a part of your speech, too.

9:08

And that's all for Study English today.

9:10

We've looked at using infinitives.

9:13

And then we talked about conversation management markers and how to use them.

9:20

For more practice on today's topics, go to the Study English website. It's at abcasiapacific.com/studyenglish.

9:30

I'll see you next time. Bye bye.

 

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