Please reload

Bài viết mới

Giới thiệu trang web quyhocbongttls.org

1/1
Please reload

IELTS Preparation Series 2, Episode 9: Whale Sharks

September 4, 2016

 

(Bấm vào đây để chọn bài học kế tiếp)

 

Xem lời thoại bên dưới:

 

0:13

Hello. I'm Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation.

0:19

Today, we're going to look at the use of contractions in spoken English. A contraction is like a

0:25

short form in speech.

0:28

I've just used three examples:

0:30

I'm for 'I am',

0:32

we're for 'we are',

0:35

and I've for 'I have'

0:38

English speakers often use contractions, so mastering them will help your speech improve.

0:43

Our story today is about tourists helping scientists study whale sharks off the coast

0:51

of Western Australia.

0:53

Listen to this conversation, and try to identify the contractions.

0:58

So what sort of information are you recording in your log?

1:00

The latitude and longitude, the depth, the time, the sex and any sort of interaction

1:07

that the swimmers have with it. The whale sharks don't actually seem to mind the interaction

1:12

with them and certainly if it wasn't for them being out here we wouldn't have the amount

1:16

of knowledge we do about them.

1:18

The difference is, I suppose, with scientific research, you might have a research team here

1:22

for a week, two weeks, and then they leave. They might come here once every few years.

1:27

But when you've got, well, six or seven whale shark boats here, three or four in Coral Bay,

1:32

running for three or four months then their contribution to research is awesome. They're

1:38

out here every day.

1:41

Did you hear the contractions? The first speaker used three of them.

1:46

Simon said: don't, wasn't and wouldn't.

1:51

Listen again.

1:54

The whale sharks don't actually seem to mind the interaction with them and certainly if

1:58

it wasn't for them being out here we wouldn't have the amount of knowledge we do about them.

2:03

Don't is a contraction of do not.

2:07

Wasn't is a contraction of was not.

2:10

Wouldn't is a contraction of would not.

2:15

These are all examples of a very common style of contraction - a verb and the negative,

2:21

not.

2:22

Now listen to a tour guide, Steve Gibson, talking about the tourists who help study

2:28

the whale sharks. He uses another type of contraction. Can you identify it?

2:34

The difference is, I suppose, with scientific research, you might have a research team here

2:38

for a week, two weeks, and then they leave. They might come here once every few years.

2:43

But when you've got, well, six or seven whale shark boats here, three or four in Coral Bay,

2:49

running for three or four months then their contribution to research is awesome. They're

2:54

out here every day.

2:55

Steve says: 'you've got' and 'they're out'.

3:02

These are contractions of pronouns with the verbs to have and to be.

3:07

You've is a contraction of you have.

3:11

They're is a contraction of they are.

3:17

We can also make contractions with nouns and other words. Let's look at a few.

3:23

My brother's studying.

3:26

Brother's is a contraction of brother is.

3:30

Who's going out tonight?

3:31

Who's is a contraction of who is.

3:37

There's our bus.

3:40

There's is a contraction of there is.

3:44

When writing informally, for example in notes or postcards, it's fine to use contractions,

3:51

because they represent spoken language. However, if you are writing formally, do not use contractions.

3:59

Remember that in formal writing, words that are not in the dictionary should not be used.

4:07

Finally, let's consider the pronunciation of contractions. Some are stressed, and others

4:13

are not.

4:14

But just remember, the rules for stressing words can change according to context.

4:20

Here's a guide.

4:23

Contractions are 'stressed' when they're formed from nouns, main verbs and negatives.

4:32

For example:

4:33

my brother's studying

4:35

if it wasn't for them

4:38

we wouldn't have

4:42

Contractions are 'not' stressed when they're formed from pronouns and auxiliary words.

4:48

For example, Steve says:

4:52

when you've got boats here

4:55

they're out here every day

4:57

Notice that contractions cannot occur at the end of a sentence, except for the contraction

5:03

of a verb and 'not'.

5:06

For example,

5:07

He's sick Yes, I know he is. We cannot say, Yes I know

5:13

he's.

5:14

But we can say:

5:16

I'm hurt. No, you aren't.

5:22

OK. Now we're going to watch the story again. This time, listen for the use of nouns.

5:32

So what sort of information are you recording in your log?

5:34

The latitude and longitude, the depth, the time, the sex and any sort of interaction

5:41

that the swimmers have with it. The whale sharks don't actually seem to mind the interaction

5:46

with them and certainly if it wasn't for them being out here we wouldn't have the amount

5:49

of knowledge we do about them.

5:51

The difference is, I suppose, with scientific research, you might have a research team here

5:55

for a week, two weeks, and then they leave. They might come here once every few years.

6:00

But when you've got, well, six or seven whale shark boats here, three or four in Coral Bay,

6:06

running for three or four months then their contribution to research is awesome. They're

6:11

out here every day.

6:14

All the speakers use a number of nouns.

6:17

In English nouns are either countable or uncountable - that is, we can either count them or we

6:25

can't.

6:26

Let's look at countable nouns.

6:28

Countable nouns are generally things like:

6:32

people - a teacher, a cook, a swimmer

6:37

animals - a dog, a cat, a whale shark

6:42

plants - a lily, a bush, a tree

6:47

objects - a chair, a table, a boat

6:52

units of measurement - a litre, dollar, a cup

6:58

Uncountable nouns are generally more abstract, and include things such as:

7:04

languages - Chinese, Japanese, German

7:09

emotions - happiness, sadness, anger

7:13

ideas - intelligence, luck, knowledge

7:18

substances or materials - like air, oil or rice

7:24

Countable nouns have two forms. They can be 'singular' or 'plural'.

7:30

But uncountable nouns have only one form, and cannot form a plural.

7:35

Let's have a look at that.

7:38

Chair can be singular or plural, chairs. It is a specific, concrete thing, so it is a

7:47

countable noun.

7:48

We can say:

7:49

I would like to buy three chairs.

7:52

However, furniture is an abstract noun. It has only one form, and cannot be made into

7:59

a plural.

8:01

It is an uncountable noun.

8:04

We can say:

8:05

I would like to buy all that furniture.

8:08

Using a word like 'all' indicates quantity or amount.

8:13

Listen to how Simon Stevens measures knowledge in this clip.

8:19

The whale sharks don't actually seem to mind the interaction with them and certainly if

8:23

it wasn't for them being out here we wouldn't have the amount of knowledge we do about them.

8:28

He says an amount of knowledge.

8:32

Knowledge is an uncountable noun. It can't be counted. We haven't got a specific number

8:38

we can apply to define a 'quantity of knowledge'. We use 'quantity words' or 'measure words'

8:46

with uncountable nouns, instead of numbers.

8:49

We say:

8:50

an amount of knowledge

8:52

a cup of tea

8:53

a loaf of bread

8:56

a degree of happiness

8:58

a measure of luck, or

9:01

a gust of wind

9:02

OK, so today we've looked at different types of contractions and how they are stressed

9:08

in phrases, and we looked at countable and uncountable nouns.

9:14

If you would like to watch today's story again, look at some study notes or do some exercises,

9:21

you can go to our website anytime. It's at abcasiapacific.com/studyenglish.

9:24

That's all for today. I'll see you next time on Study English. Bye bye.

 

 

Share on Facebook
Please reload

         TTLS Blog

TTLS

quy hoc bong ttls

Tương Lai Tươi Sáng Là Sẻ Chia

Ủng hộ Quỹ học bổng TTLS
Góc Học Bổng