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IELTS Preparation Series 3, Episode 16: Listening for Numbers

September 4, 2016

 

(Bấm vào đây để chọn bài học kế tiếp)

 

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0:12

Hello, and welcome to Study English, IELTS Preparation. I'm Margot Politis.

0:18

In the Listening Module of the IELTS Test you can expect to be asked questions about

0:23

numbers.

0:24

So it's important to be familiar with how we talk about numbers.

0:28

First, listen to the numbers in this clip about a wind farm in Tasmania:

0:34

Each tower that you can see can generate enough power for between seven and eight hundred

0:40

houses.

0:40

'between seven hundred and eight hundred houses'

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When numbers are exact or a clear approximation such as 'between seven hundred and eight hundred',

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the word 'hundred' has no final 's'. The plural is formed by the following noun: 'between

1:00

seven hundred and eight hundred houses'.

1:05

For an exact figure you say: seven hundred houses.

1:10

You can use a preposition to be less exact and say: over seven hundred houses; around

1:17

seven hundred houses; about seven hundred houses; nearly seven hundred houses or under

1:27

seven hundred houses.

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When we state a number, such as seven hundred or eight thousand there is no 's' after the

1:37

unit - four hundred, ten thousand, or five million.

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So when do we add 's' to these words?

1:47

Listen to the man in the next clip use 'hundreds' to describe the slow change from one type

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of forest to another:

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There have probably been three lots of logging since white settlement in the 1860s. In time,

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that eucalyptus forest will gradually go back to rainforest, but that takes hundreds of

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years.

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'Hundreds of years'. There is no number; it's just more than one. Notice we add 'of' before

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the noun 'years' Hundreds of years.

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So listen carefully. 'Thousands of' and 'millions of' are not exact numbers. They're guesses

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or rough figures.

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He also said the 1860s. This means any year from 1860 to 1869.

2:42

In the next clip about Angkor Wat in Cambodia, the speaker doesn't use the final 's'.

2:49

Angkor is one of the most popular World Heritage sites in the whole of Asia. Every year now

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there are over one million tourists coming to Angkor.

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By saying 'over one million tourists', he means more than one million but much less

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than 2 million. If the figure were closer to two million, he would probably say 'nearly

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two million tourists'

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But if he'd said millions of tourists, he would mean more than 2 million.

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Instead of saying one million you can also say a million. It means the same thing.

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Listen to this woodchopper talking about how many titles he's won:

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I've won one hundred and eighty three world titles I suppose, the only person in sporting

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history to ever win over a thousand championships … so I suppose it hasn't been too bad

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of a life.

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'Over a thousand championships'. He could have said one thousand or a thousand. And

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he could have said a hundred and eighty three. Notice that 'and' is used to add numbers below

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a hundred - he says one hundred and eighty three.

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You also say a thousand and 83 (1,083) and a million and 83 (1,000,083). But you say

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one thousand, one hundred and 83 (1,183) or one million, one thousand and 83 (1,001,083).

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When you're talking about where something occurs in a sequence, you use ordinal numbers

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such as first, second, third, fourth.

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Ordinal numbers are used in dates, as in this clip in which the speaker is talking about

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a major art exhibition held in 2006.

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The Biennale of Sydney this year is the 15th. It occurs every two years, as all biennales

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do and this year starts on the 8th of June.

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He says 'the fifteenth'. He means the fifteenth Sydney Biennale exhibition. There have been

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14 held before this one. The date is the eighth of June. This date can be expressed like this:

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June eighth June the eighth

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Now listen for another use of an ordinal number in this clip about an art course held in an

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art gallery:

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So if we're looking at one of the paintings in this gallery in European art, where we're

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looking at 19th-century paintings, we're talking about the paintings as they appear in the

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gallery spaces.

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She says: '19th century paintings'.

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Ordinal numbers are used for centuries and are often written in numbers like this:

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19th

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Of course, this refers to the 1800s, again usually written as a number: the 1800s.

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So what do you call the present century?

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I think that the strongest mark of 21st century culture is artists taking from every possible

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place to realise their visions.

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He says: '21st century culture'. The suffix 's-t' is used after 1 to represent the last

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2 letters of 'first'.

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Ordinal numbers are also used to refer to fractions.

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You have the special fraction terms - half, third and quarter, but all other forms use

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ordinal numbers as in this clip about the wind farm:

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Six towers were erected in that time; these have the potential of generating one fifth

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of Tasmania's power needs from wind energy.

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'One fifth of Tasmania's power needs'.

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Plural fractions take a plural form, for example: two fifths. Fractions are followed by 'of':

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one fifth of. And a noun group which refers to the whole: one fifth of Tasmania's power

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needs.

7:13

Another type of fraction is percentage. For example, 'one-quarter' (1/4) can be expressed

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as 25%.

7:24

Let's listen for the percentage used in this clip about an oyster farm:

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It takes approximately 2 to 2 and a half years to get the oysters up to size and sold to

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the market. From this farm we've averaged about 15% of the market for export and that

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goes to Hong Kong and Japan.

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'fifteen percent of the market'.

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Percentages have the same structure as fractions, 'of' and a noun group: Fifteen percent of

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the market for export.

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Yet another way of talking about parts of numbers is decimals.

8:05

Listen to how they're used in talking about wind turbines:

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It's quite a large structure. 1.75 megawatts generated by each unit.

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'1.75 megawatts'.

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Electrical power is measured in 'watts'. One megawatt is one million watts.

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You say one point seven five, but write it in numbers with a decimal point: 1.75.

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A decimal is usually followed by a plural noun: '1.75 megawatts'

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Now let's listen to a furniture maker talk about the thickness of the veneer, or layer

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of wood he puts on his furniture. Is his veneer thicker than the old fashioned sort?

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Today we're using sophisticated ways of putting our construction of our furniture. We use

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a lot of veneers and those veneers aren't the old-fashioned .06 of a mil, they're about

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a 6 mil veneer and they're laid up on MDF and they have a solid frame.

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His veneers 'aren't the old-fashioned .06 of a mil'. They're 'about a 6 mil veneer'.

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They're much thicker.

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'Point 06 of a mil' is a decimal figure. It's less than one. Mil is short for millimetre.

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Notice that he says it like a fraction - point 06 of a mil.

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Usually you say point 06, although you will sometimes hear point zero six.

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That's all for today.

 

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