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IELTS Preparation Series 1, Episode 16: DVT

September 3, 2016

 

(Bấm vào đây để xem/nghe bài kế tiếp)

 

Xem lời thoại bên dưới:

 

0:14

Hello, and welcome again to Study English, IELTS Preparation. I'm Margot Politis.

0:21

If you've been on a flight recently, you will have heard about the danger of sitting still

0:25

for a long time in an aeroplane, apart from the danger of boredom that is!

0:31

The danger is from a condition called deep vein thrombosis, or DVT.

0:38

Today on Study English we'll listen to a doctor talk about DVT, then we're going to look at

0:43

how to talk about things that might happen in the future.

0:46

Deep vein thrombosis is where a clot forms in the calf veins and occasionally in the

0:53

veins of the leg, sometimes in the veins of the pelvis, and this is a great concern because

0:58

the clot may dislodge, travelling with the flow of blood into the right side of the heart

1:02

and from there into the lung.

1:04

When we're travelling on long haul flights, several things happen. First of all, we're

1:09

stationery. We're not moving our legs, so there's no physiological compression of the

1:13

calf muscles. Blood tends to sit in the veins and may clot.

1:18

Number two, the environment is dry. We dehydrate, we may drink some alcohol. We dehydrate even

1:24

further. Alcohol's a diuretic agent, and it results in us actually drying out, and that

1:28

makes the blood a little bit thicker and stickier, and these factors lead to clotting.

1:32

Sometimes, in perhaps particularly the economy section of an aeroplane, we may be a little

1:36

bit cramped and our leg may be slightly compressed on the seat. This could further prevent blood

1:41

flow back to the heart and trap blood in the leg, where clotting may occur.

1:46

Dr Crantock was talking about things that that could happen, may happen, or perhaps

1:52

will happen in the future.

1:54

Perhaps is an adverb. It is a word like maybe or possibly. It gives a statement the sense

2:01

that the speaker is not sure if the thing will happen.

2:04

Perhaps I will means the same as possibly I will, or maybe I will.

2:11

May and could are modal verbs.

2:15

May has a number of meanings. The most common use is when you are asking permission.

2:22

May I come in? Yes you may.

2:24

But the other use of may is to talk about possibilities in the future.

2:31

I may come in tomorrow means in the future, I will possibly come in, but it's not definite.

2:39

Could has a number of meanings too.

2:42

The first is ability.

2:44

"When I was little I could swim," means when I was young, I was able to swim.

2:51

But could is also used to express future possibilities.

2:56

It could rain tomorrow. It's not definite, but it might rain.

3:03

Dr Crantok is talking about what can happen sometimes on flights, but it won't definitely

3:09

happen. Listen again:

3:11

Sometimes, in perhaps particularly the economy section of the aeroplane, we may be a little

3:15

bit cramped and our leg may be slightly compressed on the seat. This could further prevent blood

3:20

flow back to the heart and trap blood in the leg, where clotting could occur.

3:25

So for speculating, or thinking about what will happen in the future, we can use adverbials

3:31

like possibly or perhaps:

3:34

we can use modal verbs like may and could

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and we can use phrases like I guess, I imagine, I suspect.

3:43

So in the clip he says blood clotting could occur.

3:48

We can also say:

3:50

Blood clotting may occur.

3:53

Blood clotting will perhaps occur.

3:56

Blood clotting will possibly occur.

3:58

I suspect blood clotting will occur.

4:02

Notice that the adverbials can occur in a number of places in the sentence.

4:08

Blood clotting will perhaps occur.

4:11

Perhaps blood clotting will occur.

4:14

Blood clotting perhaps will occur.

4:18

Blood clotting will occur perhaps.

4:20

Listen to Dr Crantock and the way he structures his argument. Listen for a topic sentence,

4:30

and for the way he lists the different ideas.

4:33

When we're travelling on long haul flights, several things happen. First of all, we're

4:37

stationery. We're not moving our legs, so there's no physiological compression of the

4:41

calf muscles. Blood tends to sit in the veins and may clot.

4:46

Number two, the environment is dry. We dehydrate, we may drink some alcohol. We dehydrate even

4:52

further. Alcohol's a diuretic agent, and it results in us actually drying out, and that

4:56

makes the blood a little bit thicker and stickier, and these factors lead to clotting.

5:01

The first sentence is the topic sentence. He said: When we're travelling on long haul

5:07

flights, several things happen.

5:09

So we know from this topic sentence, that he is going to tell us about travelling on

5:14

long haul flights.

5:16

But there are lots of things you can say about travelling on long haul flights. So he says

5:21

something else in this sentence that gives us more information. He says several things

5:27

happen.

5:28

This phrase is called the controlling idea. Every topic sentence has a controlling idea.

5:35

It tells us what the focus of the paragraph will be.

5:37

So he's going to be discussing several things that happen on long haul flights.

5:44

In the rest of the paragraph, he lists some of the things that happen. He raises the points

5:50

one by one, and discusses them in detail.

5:53

When we're travelling on long haul flights, several things happen. First of all, we're

5:58

stationery. We're not moving our legs, so there's no physiological compression of the

6:02

calf muscles. Blood tends to sit in the veins and may clot.

6:07

Number two, the environment is dry. We dehydrate, we may drink some alcohol. We dehydrate even

6:13

further. Alcohol's a diuretic agent, and it results in us actually drying out, and that

6:17

makes the blood a little bit thicker and stickier, and these factors lead to clotting.

6:21

Dr Crantock says first of all, we're stationary.

6:25

This is the first factor in his argument. People are stationary, or sitting still.

6:32

He says: Number two, the environment is dry. This indicates it is the second factor in

6:39

his argument.

6:40

Moving on through the argument, you can keep discussing factors by using transition signals

6:47

such as:

6:49

another factor is

6:51

in addition or additionally

6:53

furthermore

6:56

above all

6:57

You could also use next, but this is quite informal as well.

7:03

The last reason or item in the list could be introduced by lastly or finally.

7:09

It is good practice to watch out for these transition devices when listening to someone

7:15

talk. They'll help you follow an argument more clearly.

7:23

Finally for today, let's look at some definitions. Doctor Crantock gives a definition of the

7:29

condition he is talking about, because it's an unusual medical term.

7:33

Deep vein thrombosis is where a clot forms in the calf veins and occasionally in the

7:39

veins of the leg, sometimes in the veins of the pelvis.

7:43

He says: Deep vein thrombosis is where a clot forms in the calf veins.

7:49

This is common pattern for giving a definition.

7:51

First, name the thing being defined. In this case, it's deep vein thrombosis

7:59

Secondly, use the verb to be: is or are.

8:04

Here, we'd say:

8:05

Deep vein thrombosis is

8:08

Thirdly, we can write the class. What kind of thing is it? In this case, DVT is a medical

8:16

condition.

8:17

So we might have:

8:19

Deep vein thrombosis is a condition.

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Next we use a word like which, who, where, or that.

8:29

Deep vein thrombosis is a condition where

8:33

And finally we give the characteristics of the thing. This could be a physical description,

8:39

or a description of behavior. In the case of a medical condition, this would most commonly

8:46

be the symptoms or effects of the condition.

8:50

Deep vein thrombosis is a condition where blood clots form in veins.

8:57

Let's try a couple of examples.

9:00

What is a computer? It stores and processes information.

9:05

A computer, is, a machine, that, stores and processes information.

9:15

What is an accountant? Well we have the phrase analyse and deal with finances.

9:23

An accountant is a person who analyses and deals with finances.

9:32

And what is the time? The time is something that we have run out of for today.

9:37

See you next time on Study English. Bye bye.

 

 

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