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IELTS Preparation Series 1, Episode 25: Copyright

September 3, 2016

 

(Bấm vào đây để xem/nghe bài kế tiếp)

 

Xem lời thoại bên dưới:

 

0:14

Hello. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation. I'm Margot Politis.

0:19

Today we're going to talk about simple present tense, definitions and technical vocabulary,

0:27

all the things you need to know and use to write a report.

0:30

First, we'll listen to someone talking about copyright - the rights people have to their

0:36

own work.

0:37

It's structured like a simple information report.

0:41

Copyright's a passion of mine. Copyright is the exclusive bundle of rights, which is awarded

0:49

to the author or a creator of work, to entitle them to market it, to get economic reward

0:56

for their creative endeavour and to entitle them to say when, how and on what conditions

1:02

their work may be used.

1:04

Once I put my book on the internet anybody can access it at the push of a button, or

1:09

click of a mouse. Anybody can download it, copy it and transmit it without my knowledge,

1:15

without my consent a hundred times over to every country in the world without me knowing.

1:21

There is a misconception about work, which is submitted to the internet, and it's that

1:26

if you've given it to the internet, it's gone to a public domain, therefore anyone can use

1:31

it as they will, when they will, and that is a very seriously ill-founded misconception.

1:37

The fact that you submit work to the internet does not affect your legal rights in relation

1:41

to that work.

1:42

OK, so we heard Celine McInerney present an information report.

1:48

An information report presents information about a subject.

1:53

Its purpose is to classify and describe a subject using a range of facts.

1:58

The subject is usually a general topic or area, rather than a specific person or place.

2:05

For example, the general subject of today's information report is copyright.

2:10

But whatever the subject, there are a few common features that all information reports

2:15

have.

2:16

You might notice that the report is in the simple present tense.

2:19

Listen again.

2:21

Once I put my book on the internet anybody can access it at the push of a button, or

2:27

click of a mouse. Anybody can download it, copy it and transmit it without my knowledge,

2:32

without my consent a hundred times over to every country in the world without me knowing.

2:38

The simple present tense is used in information reports to describe qualities and features

2:44

of the subject.

2:45

This is one of the key features of an information report.

2:49

Let's look at some other key features.

2:53

Information reports often begin with an opening statement that introduces the subject. This

2:58

is the topic sentence.

3:00

Listen to the Celine's first sentence.

3:03

Copyright's a passion of mine.

3:05

She uses the simple present tense to introduce the subject of the report.

3:11

Copyright's a passion of mine. Copyright is a passion of mine.

3:15

It's in this topic sentence that we learn what the subject of the report is, what the

3:20

text is about.

3:22

This is also called an orientation.

3:26

What comes after the orientation?

3:28

Copyright is the exclusive bundle of rights, which is awarded to the author or a creator

3:37

of work, to entitle them to market it, to get economic reward for their creative endeavour

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and to entitle them to say when, how and on what conditions their work may be used.

3:50

The next step in creating an information report is to give an explanation or a definition

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of the topic.

3:57

So Celine begins by telling us what copyright is.

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She needs to explain what copyright is, so that she can go on to talk in more detail

4:06

about it.

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The definition will be followed by a short description.

4:12

In this case, she goes on to give a description of the topic copyright and the internet.

4:18

There is a misconception about work which is submitted to the internet and it's that

4:22

if you've given it to the internet, it's gone to a public domain, therefore anyone can use

4:28

it as they will, when they will, and that is a very seriously ill-founded misconception.

4:34

The fact that you submit work to the internet does not affect your legal rights in relation

4:39

to that work.

4:40

So, let's go back over the main features of an information report.

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It's written in the simple present tense.

4:48

It has an opening statement to introduce the subject.

4:53

It then gives an explanation or definition of the subject.

4:57

This is followed by a short description of the subject.

5:01

You should always follow this pattern when presenting any type of information report.

5:10

Reading or listening to any text is a good opportunity to extend your vocabulary.

5:16

In this text, there are a lot of technical words related to the topic of copyright.

5:21

Let's review some of the words connected with this topic.

5:25

When talking about copyright, the speaker uses the following nouns:

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copyright, author, conditions, work, book, internet, knowledge, consent.

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She also uses a number of noun phrases:

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bundle of rights, creator of work, economic reward, creative endeavour,

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public domain and legal rights.

5:53

And she uses these verbs:

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awarded, entitle, market, access, download,

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copy, transmit

6:03

To understand all the information in this report, you'll need to know all of these words

6:08

and phrases, or be able to work them out from the context.

6:11

Listen to the full clip again to see where and how these words are used.

6:17

Copyright's a passion of mine. Copyright is the exclusive bundle of rights, which is awarded

6:25

to the author or a creator of work, to entitle them to market it, to get economic reward

6:31

for their creative endeavour and to entitle them to say when, how and on what conditions

6:38

their work may be used.

6:40

Once I put my book on the internet anybody can access it at the push of a button, or

6:46

click of a mouse. Anybody can download it, copy it and transmit it without my knowledge,

6:51

without my consent a hundred times over to every country in the world without me knowing.

6:57

There is a misconception about work, which is submitted to the internet, and it's that

7:01

if you've given it to the internet, it's gone to a public domain, therefore anyone can use

7:07

it as they will, when they will, and that is a very seriously ill-founded misconception.

7:13

The fact that you submit work to the internet does not affect your legal rights in relation

7:18

to that work.

7:19

OK, notice that she used the verbs submit and its past tense form submitted.

7:26

We're going to finish today with some pronunciation practice on words that end in

7:31

-ed like this:

7:33

Regular past tense verbs end in -ed, but there are three different pronunciations.

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After consonants 't' and 'd', -ed is pronounced 'id' or 'ud', for example:

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awarded or submitted

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After voiceless consonants p, s, k, f, sh, ch, or th,

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the final -ed is pronounced 't', for example:

8:03

tip and tipped

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But after voiced consonants b, g, j, l, m, n, z, v, th, and ng,

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plus all vowel and diphthong sounds, the final -ed is pronounced 'd'.

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For example, we have fill and filled.

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Here are some more examples:

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measure becomes measured

8:35

direct, directed

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dip, dipped

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pick, picked

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drain, drained

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and use becomes used

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Now let's test you. Do you know how to pronounce each of these?

8:55

omitted

8:56

walked

8:57

arrived

9:00

calculated

9:02

stopped

9:03

washed

9:03

A good way to learn these sorts of endings and pronunciations is to practice reading

9:11

whole paragraphs. This will give you a feeling for the rhythm of the words.

9:16

Try this one:

9:18

I overslept and missed my train I slipped on the road in the pouring rain,

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I sprained my ankle, skinned my knees, Shattered my glasses and lost my keys.

9:29

And you can practice that one at home!

9:31

That's all for Study English today.

9:33

I hope to see you next time for more IELTS preparation, bye bye.

 

 

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