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IELTS Preparation Series 2, Episode 5: Virtual Doctor

September 4, 2016

 

(Bấm vào đây để chọn bài học kế tiếp)

 

Xem lời thoại bên dưới:

 

0:13

Hello. I'm Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation.

0:18

Today, we have a story about new technologies in medicine. We're going to look at 'linking'

0:25

in spoken English, and then we'll talk about the word 'there'.

0:29

Let's listen to Dr Stuart Stapleton talk about how he treats patients in other locations

0:36

using computers and cameras.

0:38

At the Blue Mountains end, there are four cameras. There's one which stands roughly

0:47

where I would stand as the team leader in a resuscitation that gets the overview of

0:50

the room and the patient and the environment. There's another camera that's located above

0:54

the patient's bed.

0:56

There's also a camera that lets us look at things like X-rays, cardiographs, blood pressure

1:01

charts and the like.

1:02

And there's a final camera which is actually a mobile camera, which can also be head mounted.

1:06

So for example, if one of the staff up there needs to perform a procedure, which they may

1:10

have done maybe once or twice, then someone who's got a lot more experience can be at

1:14

this end and guide them through the process.

1:18

To speak English fluently and sound like a native speaker, it's important to link some

1:24

words together. Knowing how native speakers link their words together will also make it

1:30

easier to understand spoken English.

1:35

Sometimes it may be difficult to know where one word ends and the next one begins.

1:40

For example, 'healthy ear' sounds the same as 'healthy year'. When 'healthy' is linked

1:48

together with 'ear', a /j/ sound is added.

1:51

So 'healthy ear' and 'healthy year' have the same pronunciation, shown phonetically like

2:00

this, /'hɛlƟi j ɪə/, /'hɛlƟi jɪə/.

2:06

Normally, the context of the sentence would give you the meaning.

2:10

Listen to Dr Stapleton talking about a mobile camera that can view X-rays or cardiographs.

2:20

Listen to how Dr Stapleton links his words, but in particular listen for the /j/ linking

2:27

sound.

2:28

And there's a final camera, which is actually a mobile camera, which can also be head mounted.

2:33

So for example, if one of the staff up there needs to perform a procedure, which they may

2:37

have done maybe once or twice, then someone who's

2:39

got a lot more experience can be at this end and guide them through the process.

2:43

Dr Stapleton, like most native speakers, speaks quickly! Listen to how he says the phrase,

2:51

'which is actually a mobile camera.'

2:53

And there's a final camera which is actually a mobile camera.

2:57

Dr Stapleton says: 'actually a' like this /'ækʧuəli ə/.

3:04

To make your speech flow as smoothly as Dr Stapleton's, it's important to focus on the

3:10

last sound of a word and the first sound of the next, and then link the words together.

3:18

There are different types of linking in English.

3:20

This is linking type 1: vowel + /j/ + vowel.

3:29

'Actually' ends in an /i/ vowel sound and the next word begins with a /ə/ schwa sound.

3:38

Linking these words together we have /'ækʧuəli j ə/.

3:42

Listen once again to Dr Stapleton. See if you can hear another example of /j/ linking.

3:49

Then someone who's got a lot more experience can be at this end and guide them through

3:53

the process.

3:56

Dr Stapleton says 'be at' /bi æt/, /bi j æt/.

4:00

'Be' ends with the vowel sound /i/, and 'at' begins with vowel /æ/. Linking these

4:08

words together with the /j/ sound we have:

4:12

be at /bi j æt/.

4:14

Let's listen again. This time listen to how these two words are linked: 'also a'.

4:20

What sound does Dr Stapleton use to link the two words?

4:25

There's also a camera that lets us look at things like X-rays, cardiographs, um, blood

4:29

pressure charts and the like.

4:31

He says: 'There's also a camera'.

4:35

Did you hear a /w/ sound? 'There's also a camera'.

4:41

We sometimes use a /w/ sound to link between vowels.

4:45

'Also a' /'ɔ"lsoʊ ə/ '/'ɔ"lsoʊ wə/ This is linking type 2: vowel + /w/ + vowel

4:58

Knowing when to use /j/ and when to use /w/ depends on the end vowel of the first word.

5:06

High front vowels link with the /j/ sound.

5:12

High front vowels are /i/, /aɪ/, /eɪ/, /ɔɪ/ , the sounds that are produced with the highest

5:21

part of the tongue and close to the front of the mouth.

5:26

For example:

5:27

see, me my, eye

5:31

way, say boy, toy

5:38

High back vowels link with the w sound.

5:43

High back vowels are /u/, /aʊ/, /oʊ/, sounds that are produced with the highest part of

5:53

the tongue but close to the back of the mouth, like:

5:58

who, too

6:01

how, now

6:03

go, slow

6:08

Look at the sentence:

6:13

"Have you ever been overseas?"

6:17

Notice 'you ever'. 'You' ends with /ju/ - a high back vowel. So it links with linking

6:25

type 2- the /w/ sound.

6:28

It becomes 'you ever' /ju wɛvə /.

6:35

Now let's consider another aspect of Dr Stapleton's interview. He uses the word 'there' in different

6:42

ways.

6:44

Here's the clip again. Listen for 'there'.

6:48

There are four cameras. There's one which stands roughly where I would stand as the

6:53

team leader in a resuscitation that gets the overview of the room and the patient and the

6:57

environment. There's another camera that's located above the patient's bed.

7:02

Dr Stapleton uses 'there' to talk about the position of the cameras.

7:08

He says things like:

7:09

there are four cameras

7:11

there's one which stands

7:13

there's another camera

7:16

In these expressions, 'there' is used as an introductory subject.

7:22

It's used when we want to say something exists somewhere. 'There' is not the subject but

7:28

rather an 'empty' word that fills the position where the subject is usually found.

7:34

It doesn't contribute meaning. It's used because the sentence would be grammatically incorrect

7:40

without it. The real subject follows the verb.

7:45

There are four cameras.

7:47

Notice that the verb form of the introductory subject agrees with the real subject. The

7:53

real subject is plural - 'four cameras' .

7:58

So he uses the plural form of the verb 'to be' - 'there are'.

8:04

So we have 'there are four cameras', but 'there is another camera'.

8:13

Here's another use of 'there'.

8:14

So for example, if one of the staff up there needs to perform a procedure, which they may

8:20

have done maybe once or twice, then someone who's got a lot more experience can be at

8:23

this end and guide them through the process.

8:26

In this example, Dr Stapleton says: "one of the staff up there needs to perform a procedure".

8:33

'There' is used as an adverb to mean 'in that place'.

8:39

So 'there' can be used as an introductory subject or as an adverb of place.

8:47

Listen to Dr Stapleton in this clip and see if you can identify which way he uses 'there'.

8:54

There's also a camera that lets us look at things like X-rays, cardiographs, blood pressure

8:59

charts and the like.

9:00

And there's a final camera which is actually a mobile camera, which can also be head mounted.

9:05

He says: 'there's also a camera',

9:09

and 'there's a final camera'.

9:12

These are examples of introductory subjects.

9:14

So today we've looked at 2 different linking types in spoken English - using /j/ and /w/;

9:23

and we've talked about 'there' being used as an introductory subject, and as an adverb.

9:32

And you can get more practice by going to our Study English website. You can read the

9:36

transcript and check the study notes.

9:40

And there you have it. I'll see you next time on Study English. Bye bye.

 

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