TTLS

quy hoc bong ttls

Tương Lai Tươi Sáng Là Sẻ Chia

IELTS Preparation Series 1, Episode 26: Archaeology


(Bấm vào đây để xem/nghe bài kế tiếp)

Xem lời thoại bên dưới:

0:14

Hello and welcome again to Study English, IELTS Preparation. I'm Margot Politis.

0:20

Today we're going to look at classification - how things are sorted into classes or groups.

0:25

We'll listen to an archaeologist talking about artefacts, things left behind from the past,

0:32

and what sorts of groups they belong to.

0:35

And we'll finish by doing some pronunciation practice on final 's' sounds.

0:39

Well, these are all artefacts from the cesspits at Casseldon Place and there's a real assortment

0:44

of different types.

0:45

Some of the artefacts we've got relate to, I guess, the leisure time activity, the pastimes,

0:49

people might've had.

0:50

There are some gaming tokens. This is a lead disc with a horse figurine on it as well.

0:55

It would've been used as some sort of betting token.

0:57

The dice there, the bone dice as well. There's a couple of dominoes - one's made out of bone,

1:02

one, we think's made out of slate.

1:03

Some of the other pieces, we've got a lead rifle that would've been part of a child's

1:08

toy soldier set.

1:09

Yeah, these bones, again, from the cesspits of Casseldon, and quite clearly, it's been

1:13

cut. These aren't natural breaks at all. These are what we refer to as butchering marks.

1:17

So we're not just learning what sort of animals were eaten at Casseldon, we're also learning

1:20

about the cuts of meat being provided, whether it's been done locally by individual house

1:25

owners, or whether they're going to a local butcher.

1:27

I think the artefacts from Casseldon Place and the other results of the archaeological

1:31

process are important because they give us a really rare insight into the way Melbourne

1:35

operated in its early years.

1:38

The speaker, Jeremy Smith, is discussing the artefacts he's found in Melbourne. Let's look

1:44

at how he classifies or sorts out these artefacts for us.

1:48

First, the 'opening statement' tells us what is being classified. This is an orientation.

1:56

Then the things are classified according to certain criteria. They're put into groups.

2:03

Finally, at the end of the classification, there's a summary, or a comment on the groups

2:09

and their significance.

2:10

Let's listen to Jeremy's opening statement or orientation.

2:15

Well, these are all artefacts from the cesspits at Casseldon Place and there's a real assortment

2:19

of different types.

2:20

So the topic of this classification is the artefacts from Casseldon Place.

2:28

We are told that there is a real assortment of different types.

2:32

From this opening statement, we would expect the rest of the passage to be about the different

2:37

types of artefacts found there, and that's exactly what's given.

2:41

Listen to how the first type is introduced.

2:45

Some of the artefacts we've got relate to, I guess, the leisure time activity, the pastimes,

2:49

that people might've had.

2:50

The first category is of artefacts relating to leisure time activity, or pastimes.

2:56

This is the first group or class of the classification.

3:01

To make this clearer to the reader or listener, he could have used signals to show this was

3:07

the first category.

3:08

He could have said:

3:10

Firstly, we have artefacts that relate to leisure time activities.

3:15

What's the next group?

3:16

Some of the other pieces, we've got a lead rifle that would've been part of a child's

3:21

toy soldier set.

3:22

So the second category is children's toys.

3:26

Again, he could have introduced this by saying second, or secondly.

3:31

Secondly, we have children's toys.

3:35

And what about the third, or final category?

3:37

Yeah, these bones, again, from the cesspits of Casseldon, and quite clearly, it's been

3:41

cut.

3:42

The third category is to do with bones, evidence of what people ate.

3:48

So, "Thirdly, we have bones."

3:51

So after describing the different classes or groups, Jeremy summarises by saying why

3:57

the artefacts are important.

3:59

I think the artefacts from Casseldon Place and the other results of the archaeological

4:04

process are important because they give us a really rare insight into the way Melbourne

4:08

operated in its early years.

4:10

This is a summary statement. He finishes by giving a comment on the importance of the

4:16

classification.

4:17

Here he is saying the artefacts are important because of the rare insight they give us.

4:23

They show what life was like in Melbourne many years ago.

4:26

OK, now we're going to look at something completely different- the pronunciation of the letter

4:34

's' at the end of words.

4:35

But first, let's look at when you'll find an 's' on the end of words.

4:40

Well firstly, there's the natural 's'. Some words are always spelt with a final 's'.

4:47

Secondly, the letter 's' is added to plural nouns,

4:50

thirdly, it's added to 3rd person singular verbs in the present tense,

4:56

Finally, it's added to the possessive pronoun it, and possessive nouns.

5:01

OK, so there are lots of times when you'll see and 's' on the end of words. For words

5:08

where it's added on, it has three different pronunciations. Let's classify them!

5:14

The first pronunciation of the final -s is 'uz'.

5:19

It's pronounced this way after sounds such as s, z, sh, ch and j.

5:26

Listen for an example in the passage.

5:29

Some of the other pieces, we've got a lead rifle that would've been part of a child's

5:34

toy soldier set.

5:35

Did you hear it? The example was pieces, pieces.

5:41

The 's' on the end is pronounced 'uz' because it followed an 'ess' sound.

5:47

Other examples are:

5:49

buzzes

5:50

wishes

5:52

churches

5:53

judges.

5:55

The second way 's' is pronounced at the end of a word is 'sss'. It's pronounced this way

6:01

after voiceless consonants 'puh', 'tuh', 'kuh', 'ff' and 'th'.

6:09

Some examples from the text are:

6:11

artifacts

6:13

types

6:14

breaks

6:15

marks

6:17

and cuts

6:19

The rest of the time, that is after voiced consonants such as 'buh' 'duh' 'guh' 'lll',

6:26

'r', 'v', 'th' [hard] 'm', 'n' and after 'vowels and diphthongs', the final 's' is pronounced

6:36

'zzz'.

6:37

Examples from the text are:

6:38

There's

6:39

pastimes

6:41

tokens

6:42

dominoes

6:44

child's

6:45

bones

6:47

animals

6:48

years

6:48

Now listen to the clip again, and try to hear the difference between these different final

6:54

's' sounds.

6:55

Yeah, these bones, again, from the cesspits of Casseldon, and quite clearly, it's been

6:59

cut. These aren't natural breaks at all. These are what we refer to as butchering marks.

7:03

Its is a word that even native English speakers have a lot of trouble with.

7:08

Its can be written without an apostrophe, and with an apostrophe.

7:14

But what's the difference?

7:16

Well, with an apostrophe, it's is a contraction of it is, or it has.

7:22

Without an apostrophe its is a possessive pronoun.

7:27

The other possessive pronouns are: my, your, his, her, our and their.

7:35

These are used to show possession. For example: Is that your dog?

7:40

What is its name?

7:43

Remember that possessive pronouns NEVER have an 's' added to them, but possessive nouns

7:48

do.

7:49

Is that Simon's dog?

7:51

Apostrophes can often cause trouble for English language learners.

7:57

They are used with contractions and with possessives.

8:00

Don't EVER use an apostrophe to make nouns plural.

8:05

There are many students at school.

8:07

NOT

8:08

There are many student's at school.

8:11

And don't confuse the contraction of a noun and is with the possessive form of the noun.

8:17

They look the same, but they mean very different things.

8:20

"Mary's dog is ill," means the dog that belongs to Mary is ill.

8:26

"Mary's ill today," means Mary is ill. Here, Mary's is a contraction of Mary is.

8:35

OK, now let's listen to one last clip, then we'll see if you can add some apostrophes.

8:42

Some of the other pieces, we've got a lead rifle that would've been part of a child's

8:47

toy soldier set.

8:49

He says:

8:50

Some of the other pieces we've got are a lead rifle that would've been part of a child's

8:56

toy soldier set.

8:57

We've is a contraction of we have, so that needs an apostrophe.

9:03

Would've is a contraction of would have, so that needs one too.

9:09

And the last one?

9:11

A child's toy soldier set. The toy soldier set belongs to the child. It's a possessive

9:18

's', so that needs an apostrophe too.

9:21

And don't forget to practice your pronunciation and punctuation at home whenever you can.

9:27

You'll get the hang of it quickly, I'm sure.

9:30

And thanks for joining me for Study English, IELTS Preparation. Bye bye.

#II21Ieltsprepseries1

         TTLS Blog