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IELTS Preparation Series 2, Episode 24: New Training


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Hello. I'm Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation.

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Today we're going to talk about adverbs.

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Adverbs are useful because they give us more information about an action, event or situation.

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If I said they were very useful, that would be an example of using the adverb very to

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add to or modify the word useful

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But first, let's listen to our story about a new training program, to help fix the problem

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of there not being enough skilled workers in Australia.

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For too long, we didn't train enough people. We didn't put enough energy into getting people

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into apprenticeships and traineeships. We just let market forces, laissez-faire approach,

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dominate, and it didn't work.

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We've established a school apprenticeship link program, which this year will have 500

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young Western Australians, predominantly, but not totally, boys, providing them with

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apprenticeships basically that they can take up in the mining and other industries.

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Fortunately, I don't think it has been left too late, so long as we very proactively tackle

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the situation now and don't delay any longer.

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OK. Let's look more closely at adverbs.

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Adverbs work by modifying words. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, other adverbs or preposition

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phrases.

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Using adverbs correctly will improve your communication skills.

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They answer such questions as how? how often?

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when? where?

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and why?

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Because they have different functions, it's useful to describe adverbs according to categories.

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Here are some of the categories that adverbs can be divided into:

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adverbs of frequency - occasionally, usually, frequently, often

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adverbs of place somewhere, here, outside

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adverbs of manner quickly, carefully, suddenly

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adverbs of degree really, fairly, very, rather, extremely

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and finally focusing adverbs specifically, only, particularly

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Did you notice that most of these adverbs end in the suffix -ly? Many adverbs are formed

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by adding -ly to an adjective. For example:

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frequent + ly - frequently

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careful + ly - carefully

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quick + ly - quickly

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real + ly - really

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Let's listen to Alan Carpenter, a State Government minister, talking about an apprenticeship

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program. He uses a number of -ly adverbs. Can you identify the category they belong

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to?

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We've established a school apprenticeship link program, which this year will have 500

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young Western Australians, predominantly, but not totally, boys, providing them with

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apprenticeships basically that they can take up in the mining and other industries.

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Alan uses the adverbs predominantly and totally.

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These are degree expressions. They're adverbs of degree.

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Adverbs of degree can answer questions such as to what extent or to what degree. They

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also function as modifiers of adjectives and adverbs.

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Look at this sentence:

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They will provide 500 young people, predominantly, but not totally, boys, with apprenticeships.

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predominantly, but not totally

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They answer the question: To what extent will the apprenticeships be offered to boys?

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predominantly, but not totally

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Let's listen to Dave Smith, head of the National Skills Shortages Task Force, talking about

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recruitments. He also uses a number of adverbs. Can you identify their category?

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Fortunately, I don't think it has been left too late, so long as we very proactively tackle

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the situation now and don't delay any longer.

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He says: So long as we very proactively tackle the situation.

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Proactively is an adverb of manner, which expresses how something happens or how something

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is done.

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In the sentence: We must very proactively tackle the situation, proactively modifies

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the verb tackle, saying how the situation should be tackled.

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Next to proactively we have another adverb, very. We saw this category of adverb earlier.

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It is an adverb of degree.

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Some adverbs of degree, however, can be further divided into intensifiers and downtoners.

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Adverbs that are intensifiers make adjectives stronger, and downtoners make adjectives weaker.

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In the sentence: "We must very proactively tackle the situation," the manner in which

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the situation is tackled is made stronger by adding the intensifier very.

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How proactively? Very proactively.

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Fortunately, I don't think it has been left too late, so long as we very proactively tackle

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the situation now and don't delay any longer.

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He also says: Fortunately, I don't think it's been left too late.

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Fortunately is an adverb in another category. We call it an attitude marker.

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The adverb fortunately expresses a viewpoint on a situation, and usually refers to the

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whole clause.

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Examples of other attitude markers include: hopefully, surprisingly, apparently and happily.

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OK. Now let's consider how many words and phrases used in English are borrowed from

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other languages.

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Some are pronounced as if they were English, for example questionnaire and restaurant are

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from French, but pronounced in an English way.

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However, other words reflect the spelling and pronunciation of the original language

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- like détente, and ballet.

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English borrows words easily. These words fill gaps in our language. Most of the vocabulary

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in English for ballet, for example, derives from French.

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Let's listen to Alan Carpenter talking. Can you identify the foreign word and the language

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from which it was borrowed?

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We didn't put enough energy into getting people into apprenticeships and traineeships. We

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just let market forces, laissez-faire approach, dominate, and it didn't work.

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He uses the phrase laissez-faire.

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Laissez-faire is a borrowing from French.

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It closely reflects the pronunciation of the original language, and the original spelling.

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Do you know the meaning of the phrase?

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Generally, it means non-interference or not getting involved, allowing things to act of

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their own accord.

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Here are some other French words that are commonly used in English: au fait, faux pas,

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Grand Prix, encore and entourage - and you can look them up in the dictionary.

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OK. So today we've looked at adverbs, and then talked about words borrowed from other

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languages into English.

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To find more on today's story, and lots of other help and information, you can go to

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our website at abcasiapacific.com/studyenglish. I'll see you next time for more. Bye bye.

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