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IELTS Preparation Series 2, Episode 10: Durians


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0:13

Hello. I'm Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation.

0:19

Today, we're going to look at the use of pronouns in a story about durian orchards.

0:26

English uses a range of pronouns for different functions. For example, there are personal

0:32

pronouns, possessive pronouns, demonstrative pronouns and reflexive pronouns.

0:39

Today, we're going to look at demonstrative and reflexive pronouns.

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But first we're going to meet Laura Fitzgerald, a durian researcher. She is describing a durian

0:52

leaf. Listen to how she uses the demonstrative pronouns this and that.

1:00

This is the underside of the leaf and we're seeing it at a 406 times magnification. These

1:05

are the hairs that you see here. This is one of the reproductive structures of the pathogen

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and it's called a sporangia and what's happened is, it's been in a drop of rain and it's splashed

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on to the underside of the leaf and it's gotten caught in the hairs and it's what we call

1:21

germinated and started to grow across the surface of the leaf.

1:26

New research is investigating ways of inoculating, or vaccinating, durian trees grown in orchards

1:32

with the good fungi to help the plant protect itself from disease.

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She says:

1:38

This is the underside.

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These are the hairs.

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Demonstrative pronouns demonstrate both distance and number - how close something is, and how

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many there are.

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We can show this on a table.

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This is used for singular nouns that are near to you.

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These are used for plural nouns that are near to you.

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Laura is looking at a durian leaf, and referring to part of it. The leaf is very close to her,

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so Laura refers to it using the demonstrative pronouns for near things: this and these.

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This is the underside.

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These are the hairs.

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Now listen to Dr David Guest discussing the effect of the typhoon on the durian orchards.

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In 1994 in Thailand there was a typhoon around Chanta Buri, which is the main growing area.

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What happened after that typhoon is that some of the trees were damaged by the strong winds,

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but after that typhoon there was an epidemic of phytophthora, and some orchards were completely

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destroyed by that epidemic.

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He says:

2:58

that typhoon

3:00

that epidemic

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That is a demonstrative pronoun used with singular nouns that are far away.

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Those is used with plural nouns that are far away.

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The typhoon was distant or far away from the speaker. It was in Chanta Buri, Thailand.

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The typhoon was also distant in time. It was years ago, in 1994. This is why he refers

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to it as 'that typhoon'.

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So demonstrative pronouns apply not only to spatial relations near and far, but also to