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IELTS Preparation Series 2, Episode 13: Welding


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0:13

Hello. I'm Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English IELTS preparation.

0:18

Today we're going to focus on word form groups - noun, verb and preposition phrases.

0:26

Then, we'll look at some words that can be used as both nouns and verbs, and we'll learn

0:31

how to tell which is which.

0:33

But first, we visit an automotive factory - a place where they build cars - and we see

0:39

how a new piece of machinery is helping to avoid mistakes in the manufacturing process.

0:48

Here, we have two faults, which are very common in the automotive industry, where the weld

0:52

has deviated from the seam here.

0:55

Paint and grease are very common faults in the automotive industry and where we've welded

1:01

over the paint, you can see that there's bubbles in the weld. Typically we call this porosity.

1:07

At the moment, you only take a sample of the cars. You're not able to test every weld in

1:12

every car, and that's a major advantage of our technology. We can test every weld in

1:16

every car.

1:19

Understanding English is much easier if you understand how words can be grouped together.

1:26

Knowing the function of a group of words can help you to follow a sequence of ideas when

1:32

you're reading or listening.

1:34

The main word form groups are noun phrases, verb phrases and preposition phrases.

1:45

Let's begin with noun phrases.

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A noun phrase is made up of a determiner.

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That might be an article, like a, an or the.

1:59

A determiner could be a number, like one, two or three.

2:07

Or it could be a demonstrative adjective, for example this or those.

2:15

As well as a determiner, a noun phrase can have a modifier.

2:21

A modifier can be an adjective, like big, green or impressive.

2:28

Or it could be a possessive, like my or John's.

2:34

And finally, a noun phrase must have a noun.

2:39

An example of a noun phrase is the IELTS test.

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It has a determiner, a modifier and a noun.

2:54

Now, let's take a look at a verb phrase.

2:57

There are a variety of verb phrases.

2:59

The simplest verb phrase is a single main verb standing alone.

3:06

Other verb phrases are formed by an auxiliary verb + main verb or different combinations

3:13

of auxiliary verbs + main verbs.

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For example:

3:19

She finished her homework.

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She had finished her homework.

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She was required to finish her homework.

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She finished doing her homework.

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OK. So that's noun phrases and verb phrases. There are also preposition phrases.

3:41

A preposition phrase begins with a preposition. It could be a preposition of time, place or

3:50

direction.

3:52

So a preposition phrase starts with words such as at, on, during, up or down.

4:01

Let's put a noun, verb and preposition phrase together.

4:06

In the sentence: The IELTS test finished at one o'clock on Friday.

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we have a noun phrase, a verb phrase, and a preposition phrase.

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The function of verb, noun and preposition phrases depends on their position in the sentence.

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Noun phrases are often subjects.

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They usually come before the verb phrase in a sentence. The noun phrase tells us everything

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about the verb in the clause that follows.

4:44

Let's listen to Dr Trevor Gore. He's talking about faults or weaknesses that occur at points

4:50

that have been welded together.

4:53

See if you can tell what is the function of the word 'weld'.

4:56

Here, we have two faults, which are very common in the automotive industry, where the weld

5:02

has deviated from the seam here.

5:05

Dr Gore says: The weld has deviated from the seam.

5:11

The weld is a noun phrase.

5:14

It contains a determiner, the

5:18

and a noun, weld.

5:21

The weld is a noun phrase that functions as the subject of this clause.

5:27

It's followed by the verb phrase has deviated, and then the preposition phrase from the seam.

5:35

Let's listen to Dr Gore use the word 'weld' in a different clip. What is the function

5:41

of 'weld' in this context?

5:45

Paint and grease are very common faults in the automotive industry and where we've welded

5:48

over the paint, you can see that there's bubbles in the weld.

5:53

He says: We have welded over the paint.

5:57

The subject is we.

5:59

Have welded is the verb phrase. It functions as the verb of the sentence.

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So here, weld is used as a verb.

6:10

Notice that over the paint is the preposition phrase.

6:15

There's one more use of the word weld in the story.

6:20

At the moment, you only take a sample of the cars.

6:23

You're not able to test every weld in every car, and that's a major advantage of our technology.

6:27

We can test every weld in every car.

6:31

He uses weld twice.

6:33

He says with the old technology: You are not able to test every weld.

6:38

But when talking about the new technology he says: We can test every weld.

6:47

In both of these sentences, weld occurs with a determiner.

6:51

The determiner is every. So weld is used as part of a noun phrase - every weld. It's a

7:01

noun.

7:02

It occurs after the verb phrases are not able to test and can test.

7:09

So here the noun phrase every weld is an object.

7:19

We've seen how different word forms can perform different functions.

7:23

For example, weld is used in today's story as both a noun and a verb.

7:30

There are quite a few words in English that use the same word for both the noun and verb

7:36

form.

7:36

Listen for some other examples.

7:40

Paint and grease are very common faults in the automotive industry and where we've welded

7:44

over the paint, you can see that there's bubbles in the weld. Typically we call this porosity.

7:51

At the moment you only take a sample of the cars. You're not able to test every weld in

7:55

every car, and that's a major advantage of our technology. We can test every weld in

8:00

every car.

8:02

Dr Gore says that:

8:04

You only take a sample of the cars.

8:07

The word sample can be used as a verb or a noun. What is it in this sentence?

8:13

Sample occurs after a determiner, a.

8:19

So we know that it is the noun in a noun phrase.

8:23

He also says: You are not able to test every weld in every car.

8:29

Like 'sample', 'test' can be a noun and a verb. Here, test is part of the verb phrase,

8:37

are not able to test. It's a verb.

8:41

So you can see that it's a good idea to study a sentence closely for noun, verb and preposition

8:49

phrases if you're confused about meaning.

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Let's take a quick look back over what we've looked at today.

8:56

We practiced identifying and using noun and verb forms in different functions.

9:03

We looked at what makes a noun phrase, a verb phrase and a preposition phrase.

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And we finished by looking at words that are both nouns and verbs.

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There are many more examples and exercises on the Study English website. So don't forget

9:23

to log on for some more practice. It's at abcasiapacific.com/studyenglish.

9:32

And I'll see you next time. Bye bye.

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