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IELTS Preparation Series 1, Episode 10: Solar House


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Xem lời thoại bên dưới:

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Hello. I'm

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Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation.

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Today we're going to look at ways of connecting ideas. There are many ways of doing this using

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'conjunctions', words that join.

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First, let's listen to Paul Gibson, an architect, while he takes us on a tour of his new, environmentally

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friendly solar house.

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Well we completed it about 2 years ago, and I guess one of the interesting things about

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it is that it's a fibro house and most houses I guess these days are brick veneer, whereas

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this is fibro on the outside, timber on the outside, but there's bricks on the inside.

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Well I guess the very high windows along the north side going down to the lower ceiling

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height on the south basically allows you to get a lot of sun in through these windows

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in winter, and the louvres, which go out, actually go to a point where the sun can be

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shaded completely in summer, but they can be opened to let the sun right back into the

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house though winter.

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This house actually has 2 north faces. There's the north face of all the living rooms, 3

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actually, and then the master bedroom has a north face and the other bedrooms also have

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a north face. So it's trying to maximise what we call the aperture of the house, which is

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how much sun you actually get in winter.

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OK, now we've listened to Paul, let's look at the way he connected his ideas.

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Good communication, especially in an academic setting, is all about expressing and connecting

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both simple and complex ideas.

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There are many ways to do this.

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'Simple sentences' express a single, simple idea.

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The most simple sentence consists of just a subject and a verb.

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The door opens. The woman enters.

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The easiest way of connecting ideas is using 'coordination'.

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That's taking 2 simple sentences, and linking them with a 'conjunction' or joining word.

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The most common conjunctions are 'and' and 'but'.

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Other common ones are yet, or, for, and so.

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We use the most simple conjunctions in place of a full stop.

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The door opens. The woman enters.

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The door opens and the woman enters.

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The door opens. The woman doesn't enter.

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The door opens but the woman doesn't enter.

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Listen to an example here.

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Well we completed it about 2 years ago, and I guess one of the interesting things about

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it is that it's a fibro house and most houses I guess these days are brick veneer.

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It's a fibro house and most houses are brick veneer.

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It is a fibro house.

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Most houses are brick veneer.

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These are 2 simple sentences.

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They can be linked together to form a longer sentence called a 'compound sentence'.

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It is a fibro house and most houses are brick veneer.

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Compound sentences have 2 independent clauses, 2 clauses that can be separate sentences.

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Here's another one.

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The ceiling height on the south basically allows you to get a lot of sun in through

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these windows in winter, and the louvres, which go out, actually go to a point where

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the sun can be shaded completely in summer, but they can be opened to let the sun right

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back into the house though winter.

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He's talking about the louvres.

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He joins together two sentences.

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The louvres go to a point where the sun can be shaded completely in summer.

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They can be opened to let the sun back in through winter.

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He joins these sentences together using 'but'. Notice we use a comma as well.

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The louvres go to a point where the sun can be shaded completely in summer, but they can

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be opened to let the sun back in through winter.

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The conjunctions 'and' and 'but' can also be used to join words and phrases in lists.

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We separate words with commas, and then use a final 'and'.

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The house is made of fibro.

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The house is made of fibro and timber.

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The house is made of fibro, timber and bricks.

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Listen to this example.

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Most houses I guess these days are brick veneer, whereas this is fibro on the outside, timber

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on the outside, but there's bricks on the inside.

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He forms one compound sentence from simple sentences.

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The house is fibro on the outside. It is timber on the outside. It is bricks on the inside.

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Notice that 'and' is used to list similar things, 'but' is used to contrast different

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items in a list.

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So we could also say:

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The house is fibro and timber on the outside, but bricks on the inside.

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OK, so that's an introduction to coordination.

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Remember coordination is linking independent clauses with conjunctions. This forms 'compound

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sentences'.

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Another way to join ideas is using 'subordination'.

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'Subordination' is linking an independent clause with a dependent clause to make a complex

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sentence.

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'Dependent clauses' are clauses that cannot exist separately, in separate sentences. They

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need or depend on each other.

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We can form 'complex sentences' in two ways.

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We can use 'relative pronouns': who, whose, which, where;

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or we can use 'conjunctions': because or whereas.

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When writing or speaking, it's important for you to practise using a variety of sentences.

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You'll need to use simple, compound and complex sentences.

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Here's another example.

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Trying to maximise what we call the aperture of the house, which is how much sun you actually

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get in winter.

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He uses an independent and a dependent clause here.

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Look at these 2 sentences.

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They are trying to maximise the aperture of the house.

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The aperture of the house is how much sun you get.

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He joins these 2 sentences together with a relative pronoun.

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They are trying to maximise the aperture of the house, which is how much sun you get.

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Now let's practice that.

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Join these simple sentences to make compound sentences using 'coordination'. Here, try

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to use 'and' and 'but'.

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The master bedroom has a north face. The other bedrooms have a north face.

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The master bedroom and the other bedrooms have a north face.

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And here's another one.

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The house is warm in winter. The house is cool in summer.

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The house is warm in winter, but it's cool in summer.

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Now let's practice 'subordination'. That's making 2 sentences into one complex sentence.

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Try using 'whereas'.

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The house is warm in winter. Most houses are cold in winter.

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This can become:

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The house is warm in winter, whereas most houses are cold in winter.

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And here's another one. Here, try to link the sentences using 'which'.

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The house is made of fibro. Fibro is a cheap, building material.

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The house is made of fibro, which is a cheap building material.

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You'll need to practise forming simple, compound and complex sentences. There are many ways

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to do it, and many different ways of punctuating. This is very important for your written work.

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And that's all for today.

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I'll see you next time on Study English. Bye bye.

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