TTLS

quy hoc bong ttls

Tương Lai Tươi Sáng Là Sẻ Chia

IELTS Preparation Series 1, Episode 11: Recount in the Past


(Bấm vào đây để xem/nghe bài kế tiếp)

Xem lời thoại bên dưới:

0:14

Hello. I'm Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation.

0:20

Today we're going to look at ways to talk about something that's happened in the past,

0:25

and we'll also have a look at ways to form compound and complex sentences.

0:29

First, we're going to listen to a woman talk about a dramatic event in her past. Four years

0:36

ago, she had a stroke - a blood vessel burst in her brain.

0:41

Here's what happened to her:

0:43

A stroke is whereby the blood supply to the brain is cut off. The major signs of having

0:49

had a stroke that most people would equate with is weakness, so paralysis of an arm,

0:54

leg or face. In others it can be a loss of speech or inability to communicate. Others

1:01

may have loss of vision or a combination of all those things.

1:03

I was just so physically fit and also emotionally I was on top of the world. I had a really

1:13

good job at that time, and I was getting married.

1:19

I just felt terribly nauseous and I woke up with pins and needles down one side of my

1:27

leg, and then it worked its way up towards my arm and across.

1:35

I was just immobile. I couldn't move. I couldn't walk. I was paralysed on this side of my body.

1:43

Simone is telling her story. She is giving a recount of what happened to her and how

1:48

she was affected.

1:50

A recount is a story about past events, usually in the order in which they occur.

1:56

Let's take another look at a clip from today's episode. Listen for the past tense verbs in

2:02

Simone's story.

2:03

I was just so physically fit and also emotionally I was on top of the world. I had a really

2:13

good job at this time, and I was getting married.

2:19

She says: I was so physically fit, I was on top of the world. I had a really good job.

2:26

Here, 'was' and 'had' are past tense verbs.

2:31

They're irregular verbs.

2:34

Let's compare the three forms of these irregular verbs.

2:40

From the infinitive form of the verb 'to be', we can form the simple present forms: am,

2:47

is and are; and we can also make the simple past forms - was or were.

2:56

Notice that the verb to be is the only verb in English that has two past tense forms.

3:02

All others just have one.

3:04

Let's do the same for the verb 'to have'.

3:09

What is the simple present for of the verb 'to have'?

3:15

Has, or have.

3:18

And the simple past form?

3:21

Had.

3:23

When you learn new verbs, it's important to learn them with all their different forms,

3:28

so make sure you write verbs down in a notebook, and work out all their different tenses as

3:33

well.

3:38

When you are recounting a story that happened in the past, you'll need to use all these

3:43

simple past tense forms of verbs.

3:46

You'll also need to use a variety of 'transition signals' - words that help to order the events.

3:53

Using transition signals will help the reader or listener follow the order of events in

3:59

the story.

4:01

Listen for the transition signal in this clip.

4:03

I just felt terribly nauseous and I woke up with pins and needles down one side of my

4:13

leg, and then it worked its way up towards my arm and across.

4:19

She uses the word 'then'. 'Then' is very common in informal spoken language, so are other

4:26

more informal transition signals like 'next' or 'after that'.

4:31

Simone said she had a feeling of pins and needles in her leg. Then it worked its way

4:39

to her arm.

4:41

In more formal language, you might find transition signals like 'at first' or 'subsequently,

4:48

or 'after a while'.

4:51

If we wanted to make Simone's story clearer, we could add some transition signals to her

4:56

story.

4:58

If we were writing her story, we might use more formal transition signals.

5:04

Simone had a feeling of pins and needles in her leg. Then it worked its way to her arm.

5:11

We might say:

5:12

At first, Simone had a feeling of pins and needles in her leg. After a while, it worked

5:20

its way to her arm.

5:21

Notice that transition signals like this are often followed by commas.

5:28

Adding transition signals has made Simone's story clearer. You can more easily see the

5:34

order of events. This is very important in more formal language.

5:39

Try to make sure you learn and use a number of different transition signals.

5:48

Now let's have another listen to a clip of Simone talking about her illness.

5:53

Pay attention to the type of sentences that Simone uses. Are the sentences simple, compound

6:00

or complex?

6:02

It worked its way up towards my arm and across. I was just immobile. I couldn't move. I couldn't

6:11

walk. I was paralysed on this side of my body.

6:16

Most of the sentences that Simone uses are 'simple' sentences.

6:21

If we wanted to write an account of Simone's illness, we could join up some of these sentences

6:26

to make 'compound' and 'complex' sentences.

6:30

We form 'compound' and 'complex' sentences by joining simple sentences and phrases together.

6:35

Simone says:

6:38

I was just immobile. I couldn't move. I couldn't walk.

6:43

But we could edit this to say:

6:47

I was just immobile. I couldn't move or walk.

6:51

Or:

6:52

I was just immobile. I could neither move nor walk.

6:56

OK, now let's finish with a quick look at the words used in the clip. Listen to the

7:03

clip one more time, and then we'll talk about a quick way to build your vocabulary.

7:09

Listen again. I was just immobile. I couldn't move. I couldn't

7:14

walk. I was paralysed on this side of my body.

7:19

Simone says she was 'immobile'.

7:21

The prefix im- is used to make the opposites of words beginning with 'm' or 'p'.

7:28

Im- means not, so immobile is the opposite of mobile - it means not mobile.

7:37

So we can have: mobile and immobile

7:42

mature, and immature

7:46

polite and impolite

7:49

patient and impatient

7:52

Knowing the opposites of words is very important.

7:55

Many words just have a different word that means the opposite, like:

7:59

hot, cold happy, sad

8:04

in, out up, down

8:09

but other words take prefixes that mean not, like un-, de-, dis, in-.

8:17

Listen to some of the clip again. Then we'll look at a how a few more opposites are formed.

8:24

The major signs of having had a stroke that most people would equate with is weakness,

8:30

so paralysis of an arm, leg or face. In others it can be a loss of speech or inability to

8:36

communicate.

8:36

I was just so physically fit and also emotionally I was on top of the world.

8:37

He says a sign of a stroke can be an inability to communicate.

8:43

He uses the in- prefix meaning 'not'.

8:46

'Inability' means not having the ability, and here's a few more opposites.

8:53

She says she was physically fit, emotionally on top of the world.

8:59

The opposite of fit is unfit.

9:02

The opposite of emotionally is unemotionally.

9:08

A great tip is to try to find words with opposite meanings. Some words have several meanings,

9:13

so they have several opposites as well. A good thesaurus will really help you with this.

9:19

And that's all from me today. Don't forget to practice forming compound and complex sentences.

9:24

And remember to practice reading and writing in English every day. I'll see you next time

9:30

on Study English. Bye.

#II21Ieltsprepseries1

         TTLS Blog