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IELTS Preparation Series 1, Episode 16: DVT


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0:14

Hello, and welcome again to Study English, IELTS Preparation. I'm Margot Politis.

0:21

If you've been on a flight recently, you will have heard about the danger of sitting still

0:25

for a long time in an aeroplane, apart from the danger of boredom that is!

0:31

The danger is from a condition called deep vein thrombosis, or DVT.

0:38

Today on Study English we'll listen to a doctor talk about DVT, then we're going to look at

0:43

how to talk about things that might happen in the future.

0:46

Deep vein thrombosis is where a clot forms in the calf veins and occasionally in the

0:53

veins of the leg, sometimes in the veins of the pelvis, and this is a great concern because

0:58

the clot may dislodge, travelling with the flow of blood into the right side of the heart

1:02

and from there into the lung.

1:04

When we're travelling on long haul flights, several things happen. First of all, we're

1:09

stationery. We're not moving our legs, so there's no physiological compression of the

1:13

calf muscles. Blood tends to sit in the veins and may clot.

1:18

Number two, the environment is dry. We dehydrate, we may drink some alcohol. We dehydrate even

1:24

further. Alcohol's a diuretic agent, and it results in us actually drying out, and that

1:28

makes the blood a little bit thicker and stickier, and these factors lead to clotting.

1:32

Sometimes, in perhaps particularly the economy section of an aeroplane, we may be a little

1:36

bit cramped and our leg may be slightly compressed on the seat. This could further prevent blood

1:41

flow back to the heart and trap blood in the leg, where clotting may occur.

1:46

Dr Crantock was talking about things that that could happen, may happen, or perhaps

1:52

will happen in the future.

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Perhaps is an adverb. It is a word like maybe or possibly. It gives a statement the sense

2:01

that the speaker is not sure if the thing will happen.

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Perhaps I will means the same as possibly I will, or maybe I will.

2:11

May and could are modal verbs.

2:15

May has a number of meanings. The most common use is when you are asking permission.

2:22

May I come in? Yes you may.

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But the other use of may is to talk about possibilities in the future.

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I may come in tomorrow means in the future, I will possibly come in, but it's not definite.

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Could has a number of meanings too.

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The first is ability.

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"When I was little I could swim," means when I was young, I was able to swim.

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But could is also used to express future possibilities.

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It could rain tomorrow. It's not definite, but it might rain.

3:03

Dr Crantok is talking about what can happen sometimes on flights, but it won't definitely

3:09

happen. Listen again:

3:11

Sometimes, in perhaps particularly the economy section of the aeroplane, we may be a little

3:15

bit cramped and our leg may be slightly compressed on the seat. This could further prevent blood

3:20

flow back to the heart and trap blood in the leg, where clotting could occur.

3:25