TTLS

quy hoc bong ttls

Tương Lai Tươi Sáng Là Sẻ Chia

IELTS Preparation Series 1, Episode 18: Salinity


(Bấm vào đây để xem/nghe bài kế tiếp)

Xem lời thoại bên dưới:

0:14

Hello, I’m Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation.

0:20

Today we’re going to see an animation about a process called salinity, that’s where

0:24

land becomes damaged by too much salt.

0:27

We’ll be looking at language you can use to describe processes, including transition

0:32

signals. Listen for how the process of salinity is described here.

0:38

One of the main causes of salinity is waterlogging. First, land is cleared for crops to grow.

0:46

Now, instead of trees pumping the water out of the ground, and keeping the salt stored,

0:52

whatever water the crops don’t use percolates down into the soil.

0:57

Gradually, over a number of years, the earth gets wetter and wetter, and eventually it

1:02

waterlogs. Then, the water table starts to rise to the surface. As it rises, it dissolves

1:10

the tonnes of salt stored in the soil.

1:14

Once the water table comes to within two metres of the surface, it begins to evaporate. Lastly,

1:21

the sun extracts the moisture from the ground, leaving the salt concentrated on the surface.

1:28

The first casualties of this dramatic land change, and the dry land salinity that it

1:33

causes, are ecosystems.

1:36

We heard a description of a process. A process has a number of steps from beginning to end.

1:43

When describing a process, the first sentence, or topic sentence, should tell us what the

1:49

main idea of the paragraph is, and what the process is leading to.

1:54

Listen to the topic sentence.

1:56

One of the main causes of salinity is waterlogging.

2:01

One of the main causes of salinity is waterlogging.

2:04

This topic sentence tells us that the paragraph is about salinity, that is, land becoming

2:12

salty.

2:13

And the sentence tells us that one of the main causes of this problem is waterlogging.

2:18

So from this sentence, we expect that the paragraph will be about the process of land

2:24

becoming waterlogged, leading to salinity. When we describe a process, it is important

2:31

that the reader understands when each part of the process happens, what order things

2:36

happen in.

2:37

Listen again to the passage, and watch for the words that order the stages of the process.

2:43

First, land is cleared for crops to grow. Now, instead of trees pumping the water out

2:51

of the ground, and keeping the salt stored, whatever water the crops don’t use percolates

2:57

down into the soil.

2:59

Gradually, over a number of years, the earth gets wetter and wetter, and eventually it

3:04

waterlogs. Then, the water table starts to rise to the surface. As it rises, it dissolves

3:12

the tonnes of salt stored in the soil.

3:16

Once the water table comes to within two metres of the surface, it begins to evaporate.

3:21

Lastly, the sun extracts the moisture from the ground, leaving the salt concentrated

3:27

on the surface.

3:30

She uses a range of transition signals to order the stages of the process.

3:36