TTLS

quy hoc bong ttls

Tương Lai Tươi Sáng Là Sẻ Chia

IELTS Preparation Series 1, Episode 23: Octopuses


(Bấm vào đây để xem/nghe bài kế tiếp)

Xem lời thoại bên dưới:

0:00

Hello and welcome to Study English, IELTS Preparation. I'm Margot Politis.

0:20

Today we're going to talk about how to describe the appearance or character of animals and

0:25

people.

0:27

Here's the clip. Listen to some descriptions of a very strange octopus:

0:32

You couldn't get an animal that's sort of more different or more alien to us.

0:37

They've got such a weird shape. They've got eight arms coming off their mouth. When they

0:42

walk around it's like they're running round on super lips. They've got a head in the middle

0:47

of their body. They've got a doughnut shaped brain. They've got three hearts, blue blood

0:52

and jet propulsion, and they've got a bag on the back that they stick all the body bits

0:57

in.

0:58

So octopuses have weird forms, and they have lots of really unusual behaviours as well,

1:03

like high speeds and camouflaging. I think the reason that octopuses have ended up having

1:09

such weird forms, and all these different sorts of behaviours is because they are a

1:14

really good meal. They have no bones, no armour, no poisons and no spines. They're popular

1:19

prey, so they have to be very fast and clever at squeezing through tiny holes, and really

1:25

good at hiding from animals that want to eat them. So having to get away from their predators

1:30

in the sea has made them evolve into amazing creatures.

1:34

So they certainly are very strange creatures. Let's begin today by talking about how we

1:41

order descriptions.

1:43

When you write something down, you will have already thought about what you want to say.

1:48

The next step is to decide how you want to structure your description.

1:54

Today's description of an octopus starts with an interesting statement telling us how strange

2:00

and unusual the octopus is compared to humans. This is to attract the attention of the reader

2:06

or the listener.

2:07

Let's listen:

2:10

You couldn't get an animal that's sort of more different or more alien to us. They've

2:15

got such a weird shape.

2:17

Then the description focuses on the appearance of octopuses, the way they look.

2:23

They have a weird shape.

2:25

Which of the octopuses' characteristics is described next?

2:30

So octopuses have weird forms, and they have lots of really unusual behaviours as well,

2:35

like high speeds and camouflaging.

2:38

He talks about the behaviours of the octopus.

2:42

So he begins by talking about the way an octopus looks and then he talks about its behaviours

2:48

- the way it acts.

2:51

There are many other headings we could use to organise a description of something.

2:55

For example, if you want to describe a person, you might think about their age, height, hair,

3:03

eyes, face, skin or other features.

3:08

For example, how would you describe this person?

3:12

She has brown hair and brown eyes. Her face is long and narrow.

3:18

Her skin is tanned.

3:22

We could also say that she is of average height and has a slim build. You might even want

3:28

to guess how tall she is.

3:31

In Australia, we use centimetres to measure height, but many people still use feet and

3:37

inches to describe height.

3:40

So we might say she is 5 feet 6 inches, or 167 centimetres tall.

3:48

Have a look at these pictures. Which person has brown hair, blue eyes a round face and

3:55

freckles?

3:57

Well, they both do.

4:00

Which person is a teenager with long, straight hair and big eyes?

4:05

Which person is middle aged with frizzy hair and glasses?

4:11

You can see that the same person can be described in different ways, depending on what you want

4:16

to focus on. The more vocabulary you know, the better your descriptions will be.

4:23

Now, listen for another way of describing a person or animal.

4:27

They've got a head in the middle of their body. They've got a doughnut shaped brain.

4:31

They've got three hearts, blue blood and jet propulsion.

4:35

The octopus has a doughnut shaped brain.

4:39

There's not many people you could say that about!

4:42

But when describing things, it can be useful to compare something with a common shape.

4:47

So a person might have an oval shaped face, almond shaped eyes and a pear shaped body,

4:55

like this.

4:58

But what if you don't want to describe the way a person looks? You might want to someone's

5:03

personality or character.

5:05

Let's hear more about the octopus.

5:08

They're popular prey, so they have to be very fast and clever at squeezing through tiny

5:13

holes, and really good at hiding from animals that want to eat them. So having to get away

5:18

from their predators in the sea has made them evolve into amazing creatures.

5:24

He describes the octopus as fast, clever, good at hiding, and amazing.

5:31

When we are describing someone, or something, it's a good idea to make a list of headings

5:36

to help organise the description.

5:39

We can talk about intellect - a person might be clever, wise,

5:44

bright, smart, foolish or even stupid.

5:48

We can also talk about a person's attitudes towards life.

5:53

We could say a person is sensible, introverted, extroverted, optimistic

5:59

or pessimistic.

6:00

Or we might talk about their attitudes to people.

6:04

Are they polite, generous and kind,

6:07

or are they impolite, greedy and mean?

6:12

And we can describe someone's behaviour too. Are they positive, interesting and confident,

6:18

or are they negative, boring and shy?

6:23

When learning to describe people, it's a good idea to be familiar with opposites like these.

6:28

This will help you build your vocabulary very quickly.

6:33

Do you know the opposite of these words?

6:36

cruel, extroverted, courteous, generous,

6:40

bright

6:43

The opposites are:

6:44

kind, introverted, rude, selfish

6:49

and stupid.

6:51

Sometimes, it sounds better to use one of the more positive words to describe someone:

6:57

Mary was really cruel.

6:59

You could say: "Mary was not very kind."

7:04

I think Kylie is rude.

7:07

I think Kylie is not always polite.

7:14

Now let's work on building up your vocabulary about body parts.

7:19

We'll begin by listening to the clip again. Listen for words that describe the body parts

7:24

of the octopus.

7:26

They've got such a weird shape. They've got eight arms coming off their mouth. When they

7:30

walk around it's like they're running round on super lips. They've got a head in the middle

7:35

of their body. They've got a doughnut shaped brain. They've got three hearts, blue blood

7:40

and jet propulsion, and they've got a bag on the back that they stick all the body bits

7:45

in.

7:46

He uses the words mouth, arms, lips, head, body, brain, heart, blood and back.

7:57

These all refer to parts of the body that you might want to describe, so it's important

8:02

to know them.

8:04

The easiest way to remember large families of words like these is to have a system. You

8:09

should organise the words by association.

8:13

For example, you could begin with the face and remember all the words that relate to

8:17

the face - eyes, mouth, nose.

8:21

Then you could work on the body and all the words that go with it - spine, blood, bones.

8:27

You can then do this for the head, the legs, the arms.

8:34

Rhymes can also be helpful when you're trying to remember new words.

8:38

A rhyme that Australian children learn in school is:

8:42

Head and shoulders, knees and toes Eyes, ears, mouth and nose.

8:48

Or, maybe you could try to find words with similar sounds and group them together. Practicing

8:53

them can also help with pronunciation.

8:56

Some good examples are:

8:59

ch-words chest, chin and cheek.

9:03

or:

9:03

k-sounds ankle, skull,

9:07

back and knuckle.

9:08

or words that start with h head, hip,

9:13

heel, hand, heart.

9:16

In this way, you'll be able to practice body parts, and pronunciation at the same time.

9:22

And make sure you learn the more unusual body parts as well!

9:26

And that's all for today. Don't forget to practice all the things we've learned today,

9:30

and I'll see you next time. Bye bye.

#II21Ieltsprepseries1

         TTLS Blog