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IELTS Preparation Series 1, Episode 25: Copyright


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0:14

Hello. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation. I'm Margot Politis.

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Today we're going to talk about simple present tense, definitions and technical vocabulary,

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all the things you need to know and use to write a report.

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First, we'll listen to someone talking about copyright - the rights people have to their

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own work.

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It's structured like a simple information report.

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Copyright's a passion of mine. Copyright is the exclusive bundle of rights, which is awarded

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to the author or a creator of work, to entitle them to market it, to get economic reward

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for their creative endeavour and to entitle them to say when, how and on what conditions

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their work may be used.

1:04

Once I put my book on the internet anybody can access it at the push of a button, or

1:09

click of a mouse. Anybody can download it, copy it and transmit it without my knowledge,

1:15

without my consent a hundred times over to every country in the world without me knowing.

1:21

There is a misconception about work, which is submitted to the internet, and it's that

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if you've given it to the internet, it's gone to a public domain, therefore anyone can use

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it as they will, when they will, and that is a very seriously ill-founded misconception.

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The fact that you submit work to the internet does not affect your legal rights in relation

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to that work.

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OK, so we heard Celine McInerney present an information report.

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An information report presents information about a subject.

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Its purpose is to classify and describe a subject using a range of facts.

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The subject is usually a general topic or area, rather than a specific person or place.

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For example, the general subject of today's information report is copyright.

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But whatever the subject, there are a few common features that all information reports

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have.

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You might notice that the report is in the simple present tense.

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Listen again.

2:21

Once I put my book on the internet anybody can access it at the push of a button, or

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click of a mouse. Anybody can download it, copy it and transmit it without my knowledge,

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without my consent a hundred times over to every country in the world without me knowing.

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The simple present tense is used in information reports to describe qualities and features

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of the subject.

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This is one of the key features of an information report.

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Let's look at some other key features.

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Information reports often begin with an opening statement that introduces the subject. This

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is the topic sentence.

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Listen to the Celine's first sentence.

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Copyright's a passion of mine.

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She uses the simple present tense to introduce the subject of the report.

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Copyright's a passion of mine. Copyright is a passion of mine.

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It's in this topic sentence that we learn what the subject of the report is, what the

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text is about.

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This is also called an orientation.

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What comes after the orientation?

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Copyright is the exclusive bundle of rights, which is awarded to the author or a creator

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of work, to entitle them to market it, to get economic reward for their creative endeavour

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and to entitle them to say when, how and on what conditions their work may be used.

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The next step in creating an information report is to give an explanation or a definition

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of the topic.

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So Celine begins by telling us what copyright is.

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She needs to explain what copyright is, so that she can go on to talk in more detail

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about it.

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The definition will be followed by a short description.

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In this case, she goes on to give a description of the topic copyright and the internet.

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There is a misconception about work which is submitted to the internet and it's that

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if you've given it to the internet, it's gone to a public domain, therefore anyone can use

4:28

it as they will, when they will, and that is a very seriously ill-founded misconception.

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The fact that you submit work to the internet does not affect your legal rights in relation

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to that work.

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So, let's go back over the main features of an information report.

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It's written in the simple present tense.

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It has an opening statement to introduce the subject.

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It then gives an explanation or definition of the subject.

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This is followed by a short description of the subject.

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You should always follow this pattern when presenting any type of information report.

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Reading or listening to any text is a good opportunity to extend your vocabulary.

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In this text, there are a lot of technical words related to the topic of copyright.

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Let's review some of the words connected with this topic.

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When talking about copyright, the speaker uses the following nouns:

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copyright, author, conditions, work, book, internet, knowledge, consent.

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She also uses a number of noun phrases:

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bundle of rights, creator of work, economic reward, creative endeavour,

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public domain and legal rights.

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And she uses these verbs:

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awarded, entitle, market, access, download,

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copy, transmit

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To understand all the information in this report, you'll need to know all of these words

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and phrases, or be able to work them out from the context.

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Listen to the full clip again to see where and how these words are used.

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Copyright's a passion of mine. Copyright is the exclusive bundle of rights, which is awarded

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to the author or a creator of work, to entitle them to market it, to get economic reward

6:31

for their creative endeavour and to entitle them to say when, how and on what conditions

6:38

their work may be used.

6:40

Once I put my book on the internet anybody can access it at the push of a button, or

6:46

click of a mouse. Anybody can download it, copy it and transmit it without my knowledge,

6:51

without my consent a hundred times over to every country in the world without me knowing.

6:57

There is a misconception about work, which is submitted to the internet, and it's that

7:01

if you've given it to the internet, it's gone to a public domain, therefore anyone can use

7:07

it as they will, when they will, and that is a very seriously ill-founded misconception.

7:13

The fact that you submit work to the internet does not affect your legal rights in relation

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to that work.

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OK, notice that she used the verbs submit and its past tense form submitted.

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We're going to finish today with some pronunciation practice on words that end in

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-ed like this:

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Regular past tense verbs end in -ed, but there are three different pronunciations.

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After consonants 't' and 'd', -ed is pronounced 'id' or 'ud', for example:

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awarded or submitted

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After voiceless consonants p, s, k, f, sh, ch, or th,

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the final -ed is pronounced 't', for example:

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tip and tipped

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But after voiced consonants b, g, j, l, m, n, z, v, th, and ng,

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plus all vowel and diphthong sounds, the final -ed is pronounced 'd'.

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For example, we have fill and filled.

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Here are some more examples:

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measure becomes measured

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direct, directed

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dip, dipped

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pick, picked

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drain, drained

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and use becomes used

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Now let's test you. Do you know how to pronounce each of these?

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omitted

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walked

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arrived

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calculated

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stopped

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washed

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A good way to learn these sorts of endings and pronunciations is to practice reading

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whole paragraphs. This will give you a feeling for the rhythm of the words.

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Try this one:

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I overslept and missed my train I slipped on the road in the pouring rain,

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I sprained my ankle, skinned my knees, Shattered my glasses and lost my keys.

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And you can practice that one at home!

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That's all for Study English today.

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I hope to see you next time for more IELTS preparation, bye bye.

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