IELTS Preparation Series 1, Episode 5: Global Warming
(Bấm vào đây để xem/nghe bài kế tiếp)
Xem lời thoại bên dưới:
Hello. I'm Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation.
Today we're going to look at a topic you've probably heard a lot about - global warming
and the environment.
First we're going to look at ways of brainstorming, taking notes and developing ideas.
Watch while we play some vision that contains ideas about the causes and effects of global
While you watch, try to note down some of your ideas about what global warming is.
OK so you saw some ideas, and perhaps took some notes, during that clip. What were some
of the ideas you saw?
What has caused global warming?
We saw gases in the air, cars, factory waste, and people cutting trees down.
So if you made those notes, you'd get an idea that these were the things causing global
Now let's listen to someone talk about the causes.
Heat-trapping gases are building up in the atmosphere.
Heat-trapping gases are building up in the atmosphere. What else?
So what is global warming? It's the result of billions of decisions. It's caused by decisions
made by individuals - like driving big cars rather than small cars. And it's caused by
decisions made by corporations and nations, like dumping waste into the atmosphere.
Global warming is caused by about people using big cars, and people dumping waste into the
OK, so you've looked at the vision, and listened to the speaker, and you've made notes about
some of the causes of global warming.
Now let's look for some of the effects.
So after watching that, you might be thinking that global warming is having an effect on
weather patterns, and on nature.
Listen to the speaker.
Nature is already responding to global warming. There have been changes in global weather
Trees are flowering earlier. Birds are laying eggs earlier. Butterflies are moving up hills.
So there's been weather changes, and changes to the ways trees, birds and butterflies behave.
So we have a list of causes, and list of effects. You might have identified those things from
a text you've read, or from listening to someone speak. This is how you can take notes.
Once you've got your notes, you need to be able to link those causes and effects in sentences.
Let's look at a couple of different ways.
The first and most basic way is just making a sequence of statements. This can sometimes
be a powerful way of making a connection between things. Listen.
Heat-trapping gases are building up in the atmosphere. Trees are flowering earlier. Birds
are laying eggs earlier, and butterflies are moving up hills.
From the sequence of information, we realise that birds are laying their eggs earlier because
gases are making the earth warmer. So a simple list of statements can show a
cause and effect relationship.
But there are other ways too.
You can use the language of cause and effect. We can say:
X causes Y.
Driving cars causes air pollution.
There are many other word choices as well.
Driving cars leads to air pollution.