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IELTS Preparation Series 1, Episode 6: Greenhouse Gases


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0:14

Hello. I'm Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation.

0:20

Today we're going to talk about the environment. Global warming is caused by the presence of

0:26

greenhouses gases in the atmosphere. One of the worst greenhouses gases is carbon dioxide.

0:32

We're going to look at the language of cause and effect while we find out why these greenhouses

0:38

gases are a problem.

0:40

The main problem is our use of fossil fuels. So what we've done is put the whole natural

0:46

system out of balance by digging up coal and oil that took about 200 million years to accumulate

0:50

and we're releasing it all in about 100 years. So it's put the whole system out of balance

0:57

at the moment, which has resulted in higher levels of these gases in the atmosphere.

1:03

That was Dr Roger Francey talking about the natural system. He says that the natural system

1:09

is out of balance.

1:12

He also talked about the causes and effects of this.

1:15

Listen for the main cause of the natural system being out of balance.

1:20

The main problem is our use of fossil fuels.

1:25

He says: The main problem is our use of fossil fuels.

1:30

So if we look at a table of cause and effect, we can say that the use of fossil fuels is

1:37

a cause, and the natural system out of balance is an effect.

1:43

Listen again.

1:44

The main problem is our use of fossil fuels. So what we've done is put the whole natural

1:51

system out of balance by digging up coal and oil that took about 200 million years to accumulate

2:01

and we're releasing it all in about 100 years.

2:01

So the natural system has been put out of balance by people digging up and burning coal

2:07

and oil. This releases gases into the atmosphere. Coal and oil are fossil fuels.

2:13

So if we go back to the table of cause and effect, we can say that digging up and burning

2:20

coal and oil is another cause.

2:23

See if you can hear another effect.

2:26

The main problem is our use of fossil fuels. So what we've done is put the whole natural

2:33

system out of balance by digging up coal and oil that took about 200 million years to accumulate

2:42

and we're releasing it all in about 100 years. So it's put the whole system out of balance

2:43

at the moment, which has resulted in higher levels of these gases in the atmosphere.

2:49

It's put the whole system out of balance, which has resulted in higher levels of gases

2:55

in the atmosphere.

2:57

So here, the natural system out of balance is now a cause.

3:02

It has resulted in, or caused, higher levels of gases in the atmosphere.

3:07

This is an effect.

3:12

To express these relationships, there are many different word choices.

3:16

We can use verbs like causes, leads to, results in.

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So we can express the relationship like this:

3:26

A causes B A leads to B

3:30