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IELTS Preparation Series 1, Episode 7: Enviro-loo


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Xem lời thoại bên dưới:

0:02

Hello. I'm

0:15

Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation.

0:19

Today we have an environmental theme on Study English, but it's an environmental story with

0:25

a difference.

0:26

We find out about a new toilet system that has been developed to save the local environment

0:32

in a Tasmanian park.

0:34

We're going to be looking at how to talk about processes, so listen carefully to David Holman

0:39

talk about his new environmentally friendly toilet.

0:44

The liquid waste comes from the toilet behind me. There's a containment vessel for the solids.

0:46

From the bottom of the solids you drain off the liquid and it comes down here down this

0:51

pipe.

0:51

OK. The pipe tips into this tipping bucket arrangement and what this does is it fills

0:58

up to a point, and then it suddenly tips and that will measure each time it tips. So we

1:03

can calculate the amount of liquid effluent that's gone in.

1:06

As that fills up, you can see the towelling material here will come in contact with the

1:12

effluent, the air is drawn in through these holes and will actually direct the air in

1:17

onto the surface of the water, through the wick and out through the top.

1:21

OK, so David was talking about how his toilet, the Enviro-Loo, works.

1:28

He was describing a process. Today we're going to look at the type of language you'll need

1:33

to describe processes.

1:36

We'll listen to David again. This time, listen out for the types of verbs he uses.

1:42

The liquid waste comes from the toilet behind me. There's a containment vessel for the solids.

1:47

From the bottom of the solids you drain off the liquid and it comes down here down this

1:49

pipe.

1:50

OK. The pipe tips into this tipping bucket arrangement and what this does is it fills

1:57

up to a point, and then it suddenly tips and that will measure each time it tips. So we

2:01

can calculate the amount of liquid effluent that's gone in.

2:06

David uses a variety of verbs and tenses. But mostly he uses the simple present tense.

2:14

The simple present is often used to describe processes and procedures.

2:19

Let's look at some examples.

2:22

The liquid waste comes from the toilet behind me.

2:24

OK. The pipe tips into this tipping bucket arrangement, and what this does is it fills

2:29

up to a point and then it suddenly tips.

2:33

There's also another, more formal way of describing processes.

2:38

That's using the passive voice.

2:41

In academic writing, it's common to use the passive voice for actions in a process or

2:47

procedure. When you use the passive voice, your writing becomes impersonal and distant.

2:54

This is more formal, and is often more suitable in an academic setting.

2:58

Listen for a passive verb here.

3:02

As that fills up, you can see the towelling material here will come in contact with the

3:08

effluent, the air is drawn in through these holes.

3:13

He says 'is drawn in': the air is drawn in.

3:19

Notice there is no subject, no person or thing doing the action, it is just done. This is

3:27

called the passive voice.

3:30

This highlights the process or action, rather than the person or thing doing the action.

3:36

The passive is used when the important thing is not who did the action, but the action

3:42

itself.

3:44

This is true when you are describing processes. The process is the same, no matter who is

3:50

doing it, so we choose the passive voice.

3:54

Let's look at bit more closely at how the passive is formed.

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Passive verbs are formed by using the verb to be plus the past participle of the verb.

4:05

Let's look at the verb to draw in, to bring something in.

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The past participle is drawn. This is an irregular past participle.

4:18

So the passive form is to be drawn in.

4:22

The different forms of the passive vary according to the action, and when the action happened.

4:30

OK. So in formal writing, we use the passive form for processes. But David doesn't always

4:37

use the passive, because he's having a conversation with someone.

4:40

Let's look at one of David's more informal sentences, and see how we could change it

4:46

into a more formal description.

4:49

There's a containment vessel for the solids and from the bottom of the solids, you drain

4:53

off the liquid.

4:54

He says: From the bottom of the solids you drain off the liquid. Let's look at the main

5:00

part of that sentence:

5:02

You drain off the liquid.

5:04

The verb is drain off.