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IELTS Preparation Series 1, Episode 9: ADHD


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Xem lời thoại bên dưới:

0:14

Hello. I'm Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation.

0:19

Today we're going to talk about acronyms, abbreviations and names, and then we'll do

0:25

a bit of vocabulary building as well.

0:29

The boy in today's clip is about to have a test to see whether he has Attention Deficit

0:35

Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD.

0:41

While you're watching, listen for some other abbreviations.

0:44

How do you know if your child does have ADHD? An EEG brain scan helps answer that, say the

0:52

Swinburne researchers.

0:54

Jacques Duff is a psychologist and one of Richard's PhD students. A computer programme

1:01

will compare Xavier's brain scan with a database of scans of ADHD sufferers. If he does have

1:07

the condition, the ADHD diagnosis will be automatically triggered.

1:11

Xavier was having a test to see if he has ADHD.

1:18

ADHD is an abbreviation.

1:23

An abbreviation is the short form of a phrase or a word.

1:28

We often abbreviate phrases using the first letter of each word.

1:34

Notice that you use capitals letters for these types of abbreviations.

1:40

ADHD stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. ADHD is much quicker and easier

1:50

to say, and to write.

1:53

You might recognise some of these common abbreviations:

1:56

UFO stands for Unidentified Flying Object

2:03

ASAP means As Soon As Possible

2:12

Other common abbreviations are:

2:14

PC, Personal Computer

2:18

TV for Television

2:21

and CD-ROM - that's a Compact Disc with a Read Only Memory!

2:27

Notice that each letter in the abbreviation is pronounced separately, but the last letter

2:33

is pronounced more strongly because it carries the primary stress.

2:38

So we say USA, ASAP, ABC, and TV.

2:47

Listen for another abbreviation here.

2:51

Jacques Duff is a psychologist and one of Richard's PhD students.

2:56

Jacques Duff is one of Richard's PhD students.

3:00

PhD stands for Doctor of Philosophy.

3:06

Another abbreviation you'll recognise is IELTS.

3:11

IELTS stands for International English Language Testing System.

3:18

This form of abbreviation is called an acronym. With an acronym, we don't pronounce the individual

3:26

letters, we pronounce it as a word.

3:29

So we say IELTS, not I - E - L - T - S.

3:36

Some other examples of acronyms are:

3:40

AIDS, that's Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

3:45

and RAM, Random Access Memory

3:52

Another example is ASEAN - that stands for the Association of South East Asian Nations.

4:01

There's one more common shortening in today's story. Listen for whether it's an abbreviation

4:08

or an acronym.

4:10

An EEG brain scan helps answer that, say the Swinburne researchers.

4:16

He says an EEG. That's an abbreviation. We don't pronounce it eeg, we say E-E-G.

4:26

EEG stands for Electro-Encephalograph.

4:32

That's a type of brain scan, but you can see why we shorten it to EEG.

4:39

Notice that in formal academic writing, it's necessary to write out an abbreviation in

4:45

full the first time you use it.

4:48

So if you wanted to write about an EEG, you'd write it out in full the first time, and place

4:55

the abbreviation in brackets, like this.

5:00

An Electro - Encephalograph [EEG] can help treat patients.

5:11

After that in your paper, you can just use the abbreviation on its own.

5:16

OK. So let's listen to the clip again, but this time, listen for words to do with universities.

5:28

How do you know if your child does have ADHD? An EEG brain scan helps answer that, say the

5:34

Swinburne researchers.

5:37

Jacques Duff is a psychologist and one of Richard's PhD students. A computer programme

5:43

will compare Xavier's brain scan with a database of scans of ADHD sufferers.

5:50

He refers to the Swinburne researchers.

5:53

Swinburne is the name of a university in Victoria.

5:57

There were also some other university-related words.

6:02

Jacques Duff is a psychologist and a PhD student.

6:07

A great way to learn new words is in themes like this, and by organising them into word

6:13

trees.

6:14

Let's look at university words.

6:18

Students might study for a Diploma, a Bachelor degree, an Honours degree, a Masters degree

6:26

or a PhD.

6:30

Jacques Duff is a PhD student, so that's where he fits into this tree.

6:36

There are number of different people and places mentioned in today's story. We don't see them

6:41

all, but we hear their names.

6:44

Listen for the names in this clip.

6:47

An EEG brain scan helps answer that, say the Swinburne researchers. Jacques Duff is a psychologist

6:54

and one of Richard's PhD students. A computer programme will compare Xavier's brain scan

7:01

with a database of scans of ADHD sufferers.

7:05

The people he mentions are Jacques Duff, Richard and Xavier.

7:11

If someone has an uncommon name, people will often ask how their name is spelt.

7:17

For example, Xavier is an uncommon name in Australia. So if I met Xavier, I might ask

7:25

him, "How do you spell your name?"

7:29

So it's a good idea to get used to spelling out your name.

7:34

Xavier is spelt like this: X-A-V-I-E-R, Xavier.

7:42

Jacques is also an uncommon name in English, because it's a French name.

7:49

In this case, we have both a first and a last name.

7:54

His first name is Jacques, and his last name is Duff.

8:01

A first name is sometimes called a Christian name. It's also called a given name. It's

8:08

the name your family chooses for you.

8:11

The last name is also called a surname, or family name. That's usually the name of one

8:18

parent that's passed on to their children.

8:21

Jacques's first name is spelt J-A-C-Q-U-E-S, and his surname is Duff.

8:34

Notice that if you asked someone in Australia to spell out the name Duff, they would say:

8:40

D-U-double F.

8:44

But in North America, people would spell it like this D-U-F-F. They don't use the word

8:52

double. They say the letter twice instead.

8:56

So if we asked Jacques Duff to spell out his surname, he would say: D-U-double F. Or, he

9:05

might say D-U-F-F.

9:09

You'll need to be familiar with both ways of spelling out double letters. You should

9:14

also make sure you know exactly how to spell out your own name in English.

9:20

That's all for today.

9:21

I'm Margot Politis - that's M-A-R-G-O-T P-O-L-I-T-I-S.

9:31

See you next time.

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