###### Bài viết mới

*IELTS Writing: Numbers and Pie Charts*

*IELTS Writing: Numbers and Pie Charts*

**September 4, 2016**

(Bấm vào đây để chọn bài học kế tiếp)

*Xem lời thoại bên dưới:*

0:02

Hi there. My name is Emma, and in today's video, I am going to talk

0:06

a lot about the IELTS test, specifically writing task one.

0:11

I'm going to teach you about a certain thing

0:14

you might see on the IELTS, and that's a pie chart. I'm going to explain what a pie chart

0:20

is, and ways to talk about pie charts in order to improve your vocabulary mark for the IELTS.

0:28

Many students get really, really confused when they see graphs on the IELTS, and they

0:34

get really confused trying to talk about numbers, specifically. So, in this video, I'm also

0:39

going to talk about: How do we describe numbers when we're looking at pie charts?

0:44

How do we describe percentages? You know, and how can we

0:49

make our vocabulary very varied? Okay?

0:54

So, let's get started.

0:57

The first thing I want to do is talk about: What is a pie chart?

1:01

So, I have here three different types of graphs.

1:04

Three different graphs you might see on the IELTS, in the

1:08

writing section, in the very first part of the writing section. Okay? You might see a

1:14

picture like this, like this, or like this. So, one of these looks like a pie, something

1:21

you eat. Which one do you think looks the most like pie?

1:26

If you said this one, you are correct.

1:30

This is what we are going to be talking about today. We can call it either a "pie chart"

1:35

or a "pie graph". Both are correct. You might also see this one, this one is called

1:42

a line graph; or you might see this, which is called a bar graph.

1:47

So, let me write that on the board. So, "pie chart", "line graph", and "bar graph".

2:03

You might also see a process,

2:06

a diagram, or maybe even a table on the IELTS. But for today, we are only going to be focusing

2:13

on pie charts.

2:16

Okay, so what is a pie chart? A pie chart shows us percentages. Okay? So, if we look

2:26

down here, I have here what I spend my money on. Okay? I want you to imagine each month,

2:34

all the money I make, all my salary, this is what I spend it on.

2:39

I spend some of it on rent, I spend some of it on food,

2:44

I spend some of it on transport or transportation,

2:48

and I spend some of it on fun. Okay? So, on the IELTS, you might have to describe something

2:57

like this. It might be more complicated. Sometimes you might actually have two pie graphs or

3:04

pie charts that you might have to compare and describe, but in this case, let's start

3:09

out a little bit easier.

3:11

So, I want you to imagine you're writing the IELTS, and you've been told to describe this

3:16

pie chart. What are you going to say about it? Okay?

3:21

Well, the very first thing you should do is you should think about: What does it all mean?

3:26

And by that, I mean: Think about

3:28

how much percent is each thing? Okay? So, for example, for cost of living, how much

3:36

is this? What size does this look like? Although we can't be sure, because I'm not the best

3:42

artist and this is not a perfect circle, I would say this is about 50%.

3:49

Okay? And this, what does it look like to you? Maybe 25%.

3:59

So, food is around 25%. Transport we might

4:03

say... Let's say 15%.

4:11

And fun, maybe 10%. Although, we're not sure. So, on the IELTS

4:19

you might see something like this. You might actually have the percentages written, so

4:24

you already know what it is, or you might actually have numbers. Okay? So, this might

4:28

actually be money, and so it might actually say, like, $500 to rent, $200 to food, and

4:37

so forth. Okay, but the first thing to do is really think about: What are the percentages, here?

4:43

Okay, so to begin a sentence when we're talking about the pie chart, these are three different

4:50

sentences that are very great... Really, really good sentences to use on the IELTS when you're

4:57

talking about pie graphs.

4:59

The first one is: "According to the chart", you can also say:

5:04

"We can see from the chart", or "We can see from the pie chart", "The chart shows that",

5:10

okay? So these are good ways to open up the sentence, and then to actually talk about

5:15

what you see here.

5:18

Okay, so we're now going to talk a little bit about: How do we talk about percentages?

5:24

So, I want you, again, to look at rent. We decided this is about 50%. So, which of these

5:30

three ways can I write this on the IELTS? Should I write it: "fifty percent", should

5:35

I write it "fifty per cent", with a space, should I write it "50%" as a number, or should

5:43

I write it as "half", because 50% is half the total?

5:49

What do you think is the best way to write it?

5:52

Well, the truth is all of these are good. Okay? You will see percent written

5:58

as one word, and also two words; both of these are fine. You can write it as a number, or

6:04

you can also write it as half. These are all great ways to write about pie charts. So,

6:11

let's get a little bit more into how to talk about numbers and pie charts.

6:16

Okay, so let's look at some good sentences you can use when describing numbers and percents.

6:23

So, again, we have the same pie chart. We have rent at 50%, food is about a quarter,

6:30

transportation is about 15%, and fun is at about 10%. So, I've written up some sentences

6:38

to describe rent. Okay? So, what I can say is: "Rent makes up half of the living expenses."

6:47

And notice the verb I use, here. "Makes up", okay? So, this is a phrasal verb, "makes up"

6:55

is great to use when you're talking about pie charts. If I wanted to talk about food,

7:00

I could say: "Food makes up 25% of the living expenses.",

7:07

"Transport makes up 15% of the living expenses." Okay?

7:14

We can also change the sentence around, so that instead of "half" being in the middle,

7:19

we start with the percent. "Half of the living expenses are rent." So, this is essentially

7:26

the same sentence, but reversed. "Rent makes up half of the living expenses.",

7:32

"Half of the living expenses are rent." We can also say: "Rent accounts for 50% of the total",

7:42

or "50% of the living expenses". So, again, we have a really, really nice verb that's

7:50

great whenever you're describing a pie chart: "accounts for". It means the exact same as

7:55

"makes up", okay? Could I change this to "half"? Yes. Could I write: "fifty percent", not using

8:06

numbers, but with letters? Yes, I could spell out "fifty percent". It's all the same; it

8:11

means the same thing.

8:13

There is, however, one thing you should be aware of. In English, we do not like to start

8:19

sentences with numbers. So, for example: "50% of the living expenses is rent." This is...

8:27

This is not good. We don't like to start out with a number.

8:32

It would be better to actually write it out. Okay?

8:40

Just like that. Okay, excellent. So, again, these are great sentences

8:46

to use when you're writing about pie charts.

8:49

So, now let's look at some ways to talk about numbers. We've already talked about 50%, we've

8:55

talked about how it can be called half, and how... The different spellings of 50%. So,

9:01

now, let's look at some other different ways to talk about percents. I have down here the

9:07

word "a third". So, if this is my pie chart, a third-there are three pieces-would be about

9:18

this, which is around 30 to 35% is a third. Okay?

9:25

I can also talk about "a quarter", which would be about 25%. Okay? If we looked up here,

9:33

food is about a quarter. We can also talk about "two-thirds", this is where it gets

9:40

a little bit confusing. So, a third is, like I said, we have one out of three. Here we

9:48

have two out of three, which is about 66%. So, two-thirds would look like... One-third,

9:56

two-third. Okay? So, this is one-third and this is two-thirds.

10:02

When we talk about quarters, we can also talk about three quarters, where instead of talking

10:08

about this little piece, we're talking about the rest of the pie. So, whereas this is one

10:16

quarter, this in red is three quarters. Okay? We can also talk about "a fifth".

10:22

So, if the pie has five parts, 20% would be a fifth.

10:29

Okay? So, in red is a fifth. Or we can also

10:32

talk about "a sixth". If we have one, two, three, four, five, six - six slices, six equal

10:38

slices, if I colour in one of these, that becomes a sixth.

10:43

Now, one thing to note. When we talked about "half", we don't use an article. We don't

10:50

say: "a half". Okay? Notice there is no "a" here. When we talk about "a third", "a quarter",

10:59

"a sixth", "a fifth" - we do have "a" there. Okay? So, you don't need "a" with "half",

11:06

but you do need it if you're talking about "a third", "a quarter", "a fifth", or "a sixth".

11:10

Okay, excellent. So, now let's talk a little more about percents.

11:16

Okay, so I made a little bit of a mistake in one of my drawings. A fifth, I think I

11:22

drew actually just four slices. Here, there's one, two, three, four, five.

11:28

So, if I coloured in one of these,

11:34

this slice would be a fifth. Okay?

11:38

So, now what we're going to do is we're going to talk about another way to boost your vocabulary

11:44

mark when you're talking about numbers and pie charts. So, I have here a new pie chart.

11:51

This is about what I like to drink, and what I drank today. Okay? So, if you look over

11:59

here, 42% of what I drank today was tea. I love tea. 25% of what I drank was coffee,

12:08

and 33% of what I drank was milk. To be honest, I also drank water and juice, but to make

12:16

this simple, we'll just stick with these three. Okay?

12:19

So, imagine you get a pie chart like this. Now, again, on the IELTS, usually they're

12:24

a little bit more complicated. But just to learn from, imagine you were given a pie chart

12:30

like this. How could we describe it? Well, again, a great sentence to use is:

12:36

"According to the pie chart", or "As we can see from the pie chart, tea", okay? It says here 42%.

12:46

"Tea accounts for 42 percent of the total". Okay? And again, if I want, I can write it

12:55

as a number, I can even go like this and get rid of the word "percent". There's different

13:01

ways I can do it. They're all correct.

13:04

Now, one thing you can do is you can add words in order to... To be a little bit more specific,

13:12

and to help your vocabulary score. So, I have some words here:

13:16

"exactly", "precisely", "around", "approximately", "nearly", and so forth.

13:20

So, these can help you with your vocabulary mark

13:23

to get a higher score. So, if I'm talking about tea at 42% and I say it's 42%, I'm being

13:32

exact. This is exactly what it is. So, I can use the word:

13:37

"According to the pie chart, tea accounts for exactly 42% of the total."

13:44

I could also use the word "precisely":

13:48

"According to the pie chart, tea accounts for precisely 42% of the total."

13:55

Now, what if I'm just looking at this and 42% is too specific; I just want to be a little

14:01

bit more general? Well, if I don't want to be exact, I can use the words: "around", "approximately",

14:10

"nearly", "close to", "roughly".

14:15

So, in this case, I'm not giving the exact number; I'm

14:20

giving near that number. So, instead of saying 42%, which tea is,

14:26

I can change this to 40%,

14:31

if I add one of these words, because it's not 40% exactly, but it's close enough. So,

14:39

I can say: "According to the pie chart, tea accounts for around 40% of the total", or

14:46

"nearly 40% of the total", "close to 40% of the total".

14:52

One thing to note, here, on the IELTS spelling is very, very important. So, if you use the

14:59

word "approximately", make sure you can spell it, because I know this is a tough word. If

15:05

you think you're going to panic and make a mistake, use "close to", it's easier, and

15:11

not only that, but you actually get-one, two-two words added to the word count for this. So,

15:16

you could say: "close to 40%".

15:20

We could also say, if we're not being exact, we can say: "slightly above" or "just over".

15:28

42% is a bit more than 40%. So, we can say:

15:34

"According to the pie chart, tea accounts for slightly above 40%",

15:42

or "just over 40%". Okay? So, again, this shows that not only

15:49

do you understand the numbers, but you're also using some very good vocabulary.

15:54

Now, imagine if I estimated a little bit higher, and I said this was... It's around 45%.

16:05

What I can say is that:

16:09

"According to the pie chart, tea accounts for slightly below 45%",

16:15

or "just under 45%". Okay?

16:20

So, these are all great words to use to add when you're talking about

16:24

percentages. Now let's talk about... A little bit more about percentages.

16:30

Okay, so now let's look at some general ways to talk about percent. We've already talked

16:35

about specific, using words like "50%", "half", "a third". What about if you don't really

16:41

want to speak so specifically? Well, I have here some different expressions you can use.

16:48

So, before we get to those, I have a new pie chart. Now, again, you will not see something

16:54

this simple on the IELTS. This is very simple to help you learn. So, imagine if this red,

17:02

little slice, if this represents coffee, and imagine if this green represents tea, and

17:10

this is how much... You know, how much I drink in a day. So, I drink very little coffee,

17:17

and I drink lots and lots of tea. Okay? And you have to describe this. So, instead of

17:22

saying the specifics... Okay? You know, what we can tell from this is that this is a small

17:28

amount, coffee is a small amount, and tea is a very large amount.

17:34

So if we wanted to talk about this, we could use the words: "a small fraction". So, this is a small fraction.

17:45

"A small fraction of the total is coffee." Okay? We could also say: "a small percentage".

17:53

We're not saying specifically what it is. "A small percentage is coffee.",

17:58

"A small number is coffee.", "The lowest percentage is coffee.", "A very small percentage is coffee.",

18:07

and "A very small proportion is coffee." These, essentially, all mean the same thing. They're

18:12

different ways to say a small amount. Okay? Or a small percent.

18:17

So, we can also change up the sentence structure a little bit. Okay? So, for example, if I

18:26

start with coffee, I can say:

18:28

"According to the pie chart, coffee makes up a small fraction of the total.",

18:37

"Coffee makes up a small percentage of the total.", "Coffee makes up a small number of the total.",

18:43

"Coffee makes up the lowest percentage of the total.",

18:47

"Coffee makes up a very small percentage of the total.", and finally,

18:50

"Coffee makes up a very small proportion of the total."

18:55

I can also add the percent, if I want to, here. Okay? So it is good to be specific where

19:02

you can, so you can always put in brackets, and the actual number. Imagine if coffee is

19:07

10%. At the end of the sentence, I can put: "(10%)". Or, I can write the word "at 10%".

19:17

I could actually write out the word "ten percent", and say: "of the total at ten percent". Or,

19:28

if they didn't give me any percents, but imagine if this says two cups a day, and this says

19:33

20 cups a day, what I could also do is write down specifically if they gave you a number,

19:40