CONCLUSIONS – How to finish speaking in English
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Hello. My name is Emma, and in today's video, I'm going to teach you a little bit about
speaking. I'm going to teach you some expressions that can really help you if you're giving
presentations, if you're taking the TOEFL, if you're taking the IELTS, or just generally
for business English and also in university classes. Okay? So these are all going to be
expressions you can use when you speak.
Now, the expressions I'm talking about specifically are expressions you can use after you've finished
talking, just to, sort of, conclude. Okay? So these are ways to say, "In conclusion."
So I have here two expressions: "In conclusion", "thus". Okay? I don't know if you've ever
seen these expressions before, but if you've written an essay, you've probably seen these.
These come at the very end of an essay. In speech, we don't really use these. Okay? "In
conclusion" and "thus", they're very, very formal, and so they sound a little strange.
Okay? If you are a university professor, yeah. Maybe you'll use this. But for most people,
they're not so common. So when we speak, we don't really use these. We use these in writing,
not speaking. Okay?
So I want you to imagine this. Imagine I am giving a speech. I'm giving a presentation,
and I'm talking about why dogs are great pets. Okay? So imagine this. I've told you first,
dogs are very loyal. They're man's best friend. Maybe I've talked a little bit about how cute
dogs are, how they're so obedient, they listen to their owners, and how they really help
people. You know, they help people who are blind. They help people who are lonely. They
help people, you know, for herding sheep. There are a lot of things that dogs do. So
imagine I give a whole presentation about dogs. Now, at the very end, I really want
to just say one more time how great dogs are. Well, I can use any of these expressions to
So for example, "to sum up". Okay. So I've just talked a lot about dogs. At the very
end, I might say something like, "To sum up, dogs are great pets." Okay? I might also say,
"Yeah. You know, dogs are loyal, so they make great pets." I might say, "In a nutshell,
dogs make excellent pets." I really do like this expression, by the way. It's a common
idiom. And it's pretty interesting because "nutshell" -- I don't know the history of
it, but "in a nutshell" means pretty much the same as "in conclusion".
We can also say "the bottom line". "The bottom line is dogs make excellent pets." If I've